Auxis thazard, Frigate tuna : fisheries, gamefish

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Auxis thazard (Lacepède, 1800)

Frigate tuna
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Auxis thazard   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Auxis thazard
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei > Scombriformes (Mackerels) > Scombridae (Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Auxis: Greek, auxis = a variety of tunna (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Lacepède.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

海洋; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 50 - ? m (Ref. 9340). 熱帶; 27°C - 28°C; 61°N - 51°S, 180°W - 180°E

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Atlantic,Mediterranean, Indian and Pacific (Western Central). Eastern Pacific population recognized as subspecies Auxis thazard brachydorax (Ref. 32349). Many authors have used the name Auxis thazard as including Auxis rochei in the belief that there was only a single worldwide species of Auxis. Highly migratory species.
大西洋,印度洋與太平洋。 東太平洋族群被鑑定為亞種 Auxis thazard brachydorax了。 (參考文獻 32349) 許多作家過去使用名稱 Auxis thazard 作為包括 Auxis rochei 相信以只有一個 Auxis 的全世界種。 高度遷移的種,1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 29.5, range 29 - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm FL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 29114); common length : 60.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 47377); 最大体重: 1.7 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年龄: 5 年 (Ref. 29114)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 10 - 12; 背的软条 (总数): 10-13; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 10 - 14. This species is distinguished by the following characters: a robust body, elongated and rounded; teeth small and conical, in a single series; total gill rakers on first gill arch 36-42; dorsal fins 2, D1 X-XII, separated from the second by a large interspace (at least equal to length of first dorsal-fin base), second dorsal fin followed by 8 finlets; anal fin followed by 7 finlets; pectoral fins short, but reaching past vertical line from anterior margin of scaleless area above corselet; a large single-pointed flap (interpelvic process) between pelvic fins; body naked except for the corselet, which is well developed and narrow in its posterior part (no more than 5 scales wide under second dorsal-fin origin); a strong central keel on each side of caudal-fin base between 2 smaller keels. Colour of back bluish, turning to deep purple or almost black on the head; a pattern of 15 or more narrow, oblique to nearly horizontal, dark wavy lines in scaleless area above lateral line; belly white; pectoral and pelvic fins purple, inner sides black (Ref 9684).
背面蓝色的, 变到深的紫色或几乎黑色的在头部上。 15 的图案或更多狭窄的, 斜的到几乎水平, 在无鳞片的区域黑波浪状的线在侧联机面。 腹部白色的。 胸鳍与腹鳍紫色, 他们的内部侧边黑色。 身体结实的, 细长的而且圆的。 齿小而锥形, 成单一列。 胸鳍短, 但是延伸到在甲胄上面的来自无鳞片区域的前缘的垂直的线。 一个大的单个-在腹鳍之间的尖鳃盖 (interpelvic 突起)。 身体裸露的除了甲胄, 是发展良好的与狭窄的在它的较后面的部分中.(没有超过 5个鳞片宽的在第二背鳍-鳍的起源下面) 在 2个较小的龙骨脊 (参考文献 9684) 之间的尾鳍基底的两边上的一个强的中央龙骨脊.

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults are epipelagic in neritic and oceanic waters (Ref. 9340). They feed on small fish, squids, planktonic crustaceans (megalops), and stomatopod larvae (Ref. 5213). Because of their abundance, they are considered an important element of the food web, particularly as forage for other species of commercial interest. They are preyed upon by larger fishes, including other tunas (Ref. 9987). Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9340) and also utilized dried or salted, smoked and canned (Ref. 9987).

表层带在浅海的与大洋性水域.(参考文献 9340) 吃小鱼,乌贼,浮游生物甲壳动物 (大眼幼虫), 与口足目幼生.(参考文献 5213) 由于他们的丰度, 他们被认为食物网的一个重要要素, 特别地作为其他有商业价值的鱼种的食物。 被较大的鱼捕食了, 包括其他的鲔鱼。 (参考文献 9987) 在市场上销售生鲜和冷冻;(参考文献 9340) 也利用乾燥或盐腌, 烟熏了而且装于罐头.(参考文献 9987)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

In correlation with temperature and other environmental changes, the spawning season varies with areas, but in some places it may even extend throughout the year.大西洋,印度洋與太平洋。 東太平洋族群被鑑定為亞種 Auxis thazard brachydorax了。 (參考文獻 32349) 許多作家過去使用名稱 Auxis thazard 作為包括 Auxis rochei 相信以只有一個 Auxis 的全世界種。 高度遷移的種,1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Collette, Bruce B. | 合作者

Collette, B.B. and C.R. Aadland, 1996. Revision of the frigate tunas (Scombridae, Auxis), with descriptions of two new subspecies from the eastern Pacific. Fish. Bull. 94(3):423-441. (Ref. 32349)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 126983)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 14 September 2010

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 周边海洋

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俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
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遗传率
疾病
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Nutrients
Mass conversion
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声音
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速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

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特别资料

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网络资源

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 13.8 - 27.1, mean 22 °C (based on 986 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00848 - 0.01126), b=3.07 (3.03 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.5 (1.1 - 2.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 13 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.8; tmax=5; tm=2.5; Fec=200,000 to >1 million).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100).
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 200 [57, 445] mg/100g; Iron = 2.61 [0.96, 6.35] mg/100g; Protein = 21.6 [19.6, 23.5] %; Omega3 = 0.324 [0.153, 0.683] g/100g; Selenium = 65.1 [25.8, 204.4] μg/100g; VitaminA = 21.9 [4.9, 83.8] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.2 [0.4, 2.2] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.