Auxis thazard, Frigate tuna : fisheries, gamefish

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Auxis thazard (Lacepède, 1800)

Frigate tuna
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Auxis thazard   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Auxis thazard
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei > Scombriformes (Mackerels) 鱸形目 (Mackerels) > Scombridae (Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) 鯖科 (Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Auxis: Greek, auxis = a variety of tunna (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Lacepède.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

海洋; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 50 - ? m (Ref. 9340). 熱帶; 27°C - 28°C; 61°N - 51°S, 180°W - 180°E

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Atlantic,Mediterranean, Indian and Pacific (Western Central). Eastern Pacific population recognized as subspecies Auxis thazard brachydorax (Ref. 32349). Many authors have used the name Auxis thazard as including Auxis rochei in the belief that there was only a single worldwide species of Auxis. Highly migratory species.
大西洋,印度洋與太平洋。 東太平洋族群被鑑定為亞種 Auxis thazard brachydorax了。 (參考文獻 32349) 許多作家過去使用名稱 Auxis thazard 作為包括 Auxis rochei 相信以只有一個 Auxis 的全世界種。 高度遷移的種, 1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 29.5, range 29 - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm FL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 29114); common length : 60.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 47377); 最大體重: 1.7 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年齡: 5 年 (Ref. 29114)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 10 - 12; 背的軟條 (總數): 10-13; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 10 - 14. This species is distinguished by the following characters: a robust body, elongated and rounded; teeth small and conical, in a single series; total gill rakers on first gill arch 36-42; dorsal fins 2, D1 X-XII, separated from the second by a large interspace (at least equal to length of first dorsal-fin base), second dorsal fin followed by 8 finlets; anal fin followed by 7 finlets; pectoral fins short, but reaching past vertical line from anterior margin of scaleless area above corselet; a large single-pointed flap (interpelvic process) between pelvic fins; body naked except for the corselet, which is well developed and narrow in its posterior part (no more than 5 scales wide under second dorsal-fin origin); a strong central keel on each side of caudal-fin base between 2 smaller keels. Colour of back bluish, turning to deep purple or almost black on the head; a pattern of 15 or more narrow, oblique to nearly horizontal, dark wavy lines in scaleless area above lateral line; belly white; pectoral and pelvic fins purple, inner sides black (Ref 9684).
背面藍色的, 變到深的紫色或幾乎黑色的在頭部上。 15 的圖案或更多狹窄的, 斜的到幾乎水平, 在無鱗片的區域黑波浪狀的線在側線上面。 腹部白色的。 胸鰭與腹鰭紫色, 他們的內部側邊黑色。 身體結實的, 細長的而且圓的。 齒小而錐形, 成單一列。 胸鰭短, 但是延伸到在甲胄上面的來自無鱗片區域的前緣的垂直的線。 一個大的單個-在腹鰭之間的尖鰓蓋 (interpelvic 突起)。 身體裸露的除了甲胄, 是發展良好的與狹窄的在它的較後面的部分中.(沒有超過 5個鱗片寬的在第二背鰭-鰭的起源下面) 在 2個較小的龍骨脊 (參考文獻 9684) 之間的尾鰭基底的兩邊上的一個強的中央龍骨脊.

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults are epipelagic in neritic and oceanic waters (Ref. 9340). They feed on small fish, squids, planktonic crustaceans (megalops), and stomatopod larvae (Ref. 5213). Because of their abundance, they are considered an important element of the food web, particularly as forage for other species of commercial interest. They are preyed upon by larger fishes, including other tunas (Ref. 9987). Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9340) and also utilized dried or salted, smoked and canned (Ref. 9987).

表層帶在淺海的與大洋性水域.(參考文獻 9340) 吃小魚,烏賊,浮游生物甲殼動物 (大眼幼蟲), 與口足目幼生.(參考文獻 5213) 由於他們的豐度, 他們被認為食物網的一個重要要素, 特別地作為其他有商業價值的魚種的食物。 被較大的魚捕食了, 包括其他的鮪魚。 (參考文獻 9987) 在市場上銷售生鮮和冷凍;(參考文獻 9340) 也利用乾燥或鹽醃, 煙燻了而且裝於罐頭.(參考文獻 9987)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

In correlation with temperature and other environmental changes, the spawning season varies with areas, but in some places it may even extend throughout the year.大西洋,印度洋與太平洋。 東太平洋族群被鑑定為亞種 Auxis thazard brachydorax了。 (參考文獻 32349) 許多作家過去使用名稱 Auxis thazard 作為包括 Auxis rochei 相信以只有一個 Auxis 的全世界種。 高度遷移的種, 1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Collette, Bruce B. | 合作者

Collette, B.B. and C.R. Aadland, 1996. Revision of the frigate tunas (Scombridae, Auxis), with descriptions of two new subspecies from the eastern Pacific. Fish. Bull. 94(3):423-441. (Ref. 32349)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 126983)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 14 September 2010

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO - 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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俗名
同種異名
新陳代謝
捕食者
生態毒物學
繁殖
成熟度
產卵場
產卵群集
孕卵數

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養殖資訊
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Mass conversion
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速度
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Otoliths
腦重體重比
眼睛色素

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網路資源

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 檢查 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因組, 核甘 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 國家資料庫 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 樹狀分類階層 | Wikipedia: , 搜尋 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 動物學的記錄

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 13.8 - 27.1, mean 22 °C (based on 986 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00848 - 0.01126), b=3.07 (3.03 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.5 (1.1 - 2.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 13 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.8; tmax=5; tm=2.5; Fec=200,000 to >1 million).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100).
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 200 [57, 445] mg/100g; Iron = 2.61 [0.96, 6.35] mg/100g; Protein = 21.6 [19.6, 23.5] %; Omega3 = 0.324 [0.153, 0.683] g/100g; Selenium = 65.1 [25.8, 204.4] μg/100g; VitaminA = 21.9 [4.9, 83.8] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.2 [0.4, 2.2] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.