Thaleichthys pacificus, Eulachon : fisheries

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Thaleichthys pacificus (Richardson, 1836)

Eulachon
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Thaleichthys pacificus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Thaleichthys pacificus (Eulachon)
Thaleichthys pacificus
Picture by Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish.

Classification / Names Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes(Genere, Specie) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Osmeriformes (Freshwater smelts) > Osmeridae (Smelts)
Etymology: Thaleichthys: Greek, thaleia, -as = abundance + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335);  pacificus: pacificus - of the Pacific (Ref. 1998).
More on author: Richardson.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

marino; acqua dolce; salmastro; anadromo (Ref. 51243); distribuzione batimetrica 0 - 300 m (Ref. 6793). Temperate; 61°N - 40°N, 171°W - 121°W (Ref. 86798)

Distribuzione Stati | Aree FAO | Ecosystems | Presenze | Point map | Introduzioni | Faunafri

North Pacific: west of Saint Matthew Island and Kuskokwim Bay in the Bering Sea, and Bowers Bank in the Aleutian Islands to Monterey Bay, California, USA. Populations from northern British Columbia are separate from those in the Fraser River (Ref. 10276).

Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm 15.5, range 15 - 16 cm
Max length : 34.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 56527); common length : 20.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 7354); Età massima riportata: 5 anni (Ref. 12193)

Short description Morfologia | Morfometria

Spine dorsali (totale): 0; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 10-13; Spine anali 0; Raggi anali molli: 18 - 23; Vertebre: 65 - 72. Distinguished by the large canine teeth on the vomer and 18 to 23 rays in the anal fin (Ref. 27547). Adipose fin sickle-shaped; paired fins longer in males than in females; all fins with well developed breeding tubercles in ripe males which are poorly developed or absent in females (Ref. 27547). Adult coloration is brown to blue on back and top of the head, the sides lighter to silvery white, and the ventral surface white; speckling is fine, sparse and restricted to the back; peritoneum is light with black speckles (Ref. 6885). Fins transparent, pectorals and caudal often dusky (Ref. 27547). During spawning, male fish has a distinctly raised ridge along the middle of the body and a rough texture, differentiating it from the female which is smaller, smoother and shinier.

Biologia     Glossario (es. epibenthic)

Found near shore and in coastal inlets and rivers (Ref. 2850). Possibly to 625 m depth (Ref. 6793). Spends most of its life in the sea, returning to freshwater streams to spawn (Ref. 27547). There is evidence of return to natal streams (Ref. 10276). May migrate up to 160 km upstream. Feeds on plankton and only while at sea (11699, 10276). Excellent food fish and source of oil (15% body wt.). Anadromous (Ref. 96339).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve

The spawning run from the sea to freshwater streams begins when river temperature rises to about 4.4° but the fish stop running if temperature exceeds 7.8°C. Males predominate the early part of the run, but their numbers are equalled or exceeded by females later (Ref. 10276, 11699). Adults usually die after spawning but some move back to the sea and return to spawn a second time (Ref. 1998). Upon hatching, larvae are found near the bottom and are soon carried downstream to salt water and eventually found in the scattering layer of coastal waters (Ref. 27547).

Main reference Upload your references | Bibliografia | Coordinatore | Collaboratori

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 March 2012

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Pesca: commerciale
FAO - pesca: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Informazioni ulteriori

Stati
Aree FAO
Ecosystems
Presenze
Introduzioni
Stocks
Ecologia
Dieta
Prede
Consumo di cibo
Razione
Age/Size
Accrescimento
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larve
Dinamica popolazioni larvali
Reclutamento
Abbondanza
BRUVS
Bibliografia
Acquacoltura
Profilo di acquacoltura
Varietà
Genetica
Frequenze alleliche
Ereditarietà
Malattie
Elaborazione
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Collaboratori
Immagini
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suoni
Ciguatera
Velocità
Modalità di nuoto
Area branchiale
Otoliths
Cervelli
Vista

Strumenti

Special reports

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Fonti Internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Genere, Specie | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - pesca: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | OceanAdapt | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, ricerca | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 1.3 - 8.6, mean 4.2 °C (based on 403 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00182 - 0.00758), b=3.17 (2.99 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179):  Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (tm=2-6; tmax=5; K=0.34; Fec=17,000-60,000 Musick et al. 2000 (Ref. 36717)).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 98.1 [24.8, 242.3] mg/100g; Iron = 0.808 [0.238, 2.305] mg/100g; Protein = 14.8 [13.7, 16.1] %; Omega3 = 1.23 [0.53, 3.04] g/100g; Selenium = 13.3 [5.8, 38.0] μg/100g; VitaminA = 15.1 [4.9, 47.7] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.02 [0.47, 1.97] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.