Thaleichthys pacificus, Eulachon : fisheries

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Thaleichthys pacificus (Richardson, 1836)

Eulachon
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Thaleichthys pacificus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Thaleichthys pacificus (Eulachon)
Thaleichthys pacificus
Picture by Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei > Osmeriformes (Freshwater smelts) 胡瓜魚目 (Freshwater smelts) > Osmeridae (Smelts) 胡瓜魚科 (Smelts)
Etymology: Thaleichthys: Greek, thaleia, -as = abundance + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335);  pacificus: pacificus - of the Pacific (Ref. 1998).
More on author: Richardson.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 300 m (Ref. 6793). 溫帶; 61°N - 40°N, 171°W - 121°W (Ref. 86798)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

North Pacific: west of Saint Matthew Island and Kuskokwim Bay in the Bering Sea, and Bowers Bank in the Aleutian Islands to Monterey Bay, California, USA. Populations from northern British Columbia are separate from those in the Fraser River (Ref. 10276).
北太平洋: 在白令海 , 與樹蔭處的位於聖徒馬修島西方與 Kuskokwim 海灣在阿留申群島中岸堤到蒙德勒海灣,美國加州。 來自卑詩省北部的族群是與那些在菲沙河分開.(參考文獻 10276)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 15.5, range 15 - 16 cm
Max length : 34.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 56527); common length : 20.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 7354); 最大年齡: 5 年 (Ref. 12193)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 10-13; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 18 - 23; 脊椎骨: 65 - 72. Distinguished by the large canine teeth on the vomer and 18 to 23 rays in the anal fin (Ref. 27547). Adipose fin sickle-shaped; paired fins longer in males than in females; all fins with well developed breeding tubercles in ripe males which are poorly developed or absent in females (Ref. 27547). Adult coloration is brown to blue on back and top of the head, the sides lighter to silvery white, and the ventral surface white; speckling is fine, sparse and restricted to the back; peritoneum is light with black speckles (Ref. 6885). Fins transparent, pectorals and caudal often dusky (Ref. 27547). During spawning, male fish has a distinctly raised ridge along the middle of the body and a rough texture, differentiating it from the female which is smaller, smoother and shinier.
在臀鰭中的犛骨與 18 到 23個鰭條上區別的特徵為大獠牙了。 (參考文獻 27547) 脂鰭鐮刀-形狀的; 偶鰭比較長的在雄性中超過在雌性中; 全部在成熟的雄性中鰭有發展良好的繁殖小瘤那是發展不良的或者不存在於雌性.(參考文獻 27547) 成魚的顏色是褐色到藍色背面與頭部的頂端, 側邊顏色淡的到銀白色, 與腹面白色; 斑點是細的, 稀疏的而且侷限於背部; 腹膜顏色較淡有黑色的小斑點.(參考文獻 6885) 鰭透明, 胸鰭與尾鰭時常暗色的.(參考文獻 27547) 在產卵的時候,雄魚魚有一個明顯凸起的脊沿著身體與一種粗糙的質地的中央, 區別從母魚它是比較小的, 濃霧與比較有光澤的。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found near shore and in coastal inlets and rivers (Ref. 2850). Possibly to 625 m depth (Ref. 6793). Spends most of its life in the sea, returning to freshwater streams to spawn (Ref. 27547). There is evidence of return to natal streams (Ref. 10276). May migrate up to 160 km upstream. Feeds on plankton and only while at sea (11699, 10276). Excellent food fish and source of oil (15% body wt.). Anadromous (Ref. 96339).

發現於靠近海岸了與在海岸的小水灣與河中.(參考文獻 2850) 可能地對 625 公尺深.(參考文獻 6793) 渡過在海洋中的它生命期的大部份, 回到淡水溪流到產卵。 (參考文獻 27547) 有證據回到出生的溪流.(參考文獻 10276) 可能向上洄游到 160個公里上游。 吃浮游生物與只有在海上的時候.(11699,10276) 優良的食用魚與油的來源 (15% 身體 wt.)。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

The spawning run from the sea to freshwater streams begins when river temperature rises to about 4.4° but the fish stop running if temperature exceeds 7.8°C. Males predominate the early part of the run, but their numbers are equalled or exceeded by females later (Ref. 10276, 11699). Adults usually die after spawning but some move back to the sea and return to spawn a second time (Ref. 1998). Upon hatching, larvae are found near the bottom and are soon carried downstream to salt water and eventually found in the scattering layer of coastal waters (Ref. 27547).北太平洋: 在白令海 , 與樹蔭處的位於聖徒馬修島西方與 Kuskokwim 海灣在阿留申群島中岸堤到蒙德勒海灣,美國加州。 來自卑詩省北部的族群是與那些在菲沙河分開.(參考文獻 10276)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 126983)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 March 2012

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性
FAO - 漁業: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Otoliths
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 1.3 - 8.6, mean 4.2 °C (based on 403 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00182 - 0.00758), b=3.17 (2.99 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=2-6; tmax=5; K=0.34; Fec=17,000-60,000 Musick et al. 2000 (Ref. 36717)).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 98.1 [24.8, 242.3] mg/100g; Iron = 0.808 [0.238, 2.305] mg/100g; Protein = 14.8 [13.7, 16.1] %; Omega3 = 1.23 [0.53, 3.04] g/100g; Selenium = 13.3 [5.8, 38.0] μg/100g; VitaminA = 15.1 [4.9, 47.7] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.02 [0.47, 1.97] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.