Oncorhynchus keta, Chum salmon : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum, 1792)

Chum salmon
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2050
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Oncorhynchus keta   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Oncorhynchus keta (Chum salmon)
Oncorhynchus keta
Male picture by Keeley, E.R.

分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Oncorhynchus: Greek, onyx, -ychos = nail + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Walbaum.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の 底生の漂泳性; 昇流魚 (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 0 - 250 m (Ref. 50550), usually ? - 61 m (Ref. 96339). Temperate; 0°C - 24°C (Ref. 35682); 67°N - 24°N, 130°E - 110°W (Ref. 117423)

分布 国々 | 国連食糧農業機関の区域 | エコシステム | 事件 | Point map | 導入 | Faunafri

North Pacific: Korea , Japan, Okhotsk and Bering Sea (Ref. 1998), Arctic Alaska south to San Diego, California, USA. Asia: Iran (Ref. 39702).

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm 70.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm FL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 559); common length : 58.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 3561); 最大公表体重: 15.9 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大記録サイズ: 7 年 (Ref. 1998)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 0; 背鰭 (合計): 10-14; 肛門の骨 0; 臀鰭: 13 - 17; 脊つい: 59 - 71. Distinguished by the lack of distinct black spots on the back and tail and by the presence of 18 to 28 short, stout, smooth gill rakers on the first arch (Ref. 27547). Pelvic fins with axillary process; caudal truncate to slightly emarginate (Ref. 27547). Large individuals are steel-blue dorsally, with speckles of black; silver on the sides; silvery to white ventrally. Males have tinges of black on the tips of its caudal, anal and pectoral fins. Spawning males are dark olive to black dorsally; grey-red with green vertical bars on the sides; dark grey ventrally; anal and pelvic fins with white tips. Spawning females resemble spawning males but less distinctly marked.

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Inhabits ocean and coastal streams (Ref. 86798). Migrating fry form schools in estuaries, remain close to shore for a few months and finally disperse to enter the sea (Ref. 1998). Epipelagic (Ref. 58426). Juveniles and adults feed mainly on copepods, tunicates and euphausiids but also on pteropods, squid and small fishes (Ref. 1998). Adults cease feeding in freshwater (Ref. 1998). Males and females die after spawning. The catch is mostly canned but also sold fresh, dried-salted, smoked, and frozen. Eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved, and baked (Ref. 9988). Utilized for caviar.

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Enters freshwater during advanced stage of sexual development and spawning occurs almost immediately (Ref. 1998). Spawning occurs at depths of ~3 meters, current speeds of ~20cm/sec. near the head waters over sand and pebbles at 4-11° C water temperature. At spawning time the female excavates a hole of around 1 meter diameter and 50 cm depth before spawning can occur (Ref. 12218). Nest building is done by the female by lying on one side and lashing its tail to displace the sand and silt on the river bed. The pair then settles in the nest, mouths gape, and with rapid vibration of the pair, eggs and milt are released. The female then covers the nest. Males are aggressive and may spawn with different females; females likewise may spawn with other males and therefore builds different nests. Adults die after a week (Ref. 1998). A fish spawns 700-7,000 eggs in two to three egg releases. Eggs are ~300-3,500 per spawn. Egg size is ~6.7 mm, water temp. is 8-10°C at 60 days before hatching. Larva size is around 16 mm. Come springtime the juveniles go to the ocean and come back 3-4 years later to their exact birthplace. This fish reaches maturity in 2-4 years. Larvae are found around the spawning site, Juveniles are found around the coast. Juveniles migrate to the ocean at ~27-45 mm during February at water temperatures around 4° C (Ref. 12218). Reproductive strategy: synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity (Ref. 51846).

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター | 協力者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 130435)


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated



Human uses

水産業: 高い商業の; 水産養殖: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい; 水族館・水槽: 公共の水族館
FAO - 水産養殖: 代謝; 水産業: landings, 種の外形; Publication: search | FishSource | 私達の周りの海


Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.

泳ぐ 型式






Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 1.1 - 8.3, mean 3.3 °C (based on 192 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00731 - 0.02730), b=3.10 (2.94 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  手段, 1.4年~4.4年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.27-0.45; tm=2-5; tmax=6).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 7 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100).
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 15.6 [4.4, 41.3] mg/100g; Iron = 0.337 [0.168, 0.758] mg/100g; Protein = 18.4 [17.2, 19.5] %; Omega3 = 1.71 [0.78, 3.77] g/100g; Selenium = 110 [32, 369] μg/100g; VitaminA = 13.3 [4.6, 41.2] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.424 [0.266, 0.821] mg/100g (wet weight);