Oncorhynchus keta, Chum salmon : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum, 1792)

Chum salmon
إضافة ملاحظاتك Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Oncorhynchus keta   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
ارفع صور و مقاطع فيديو
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Image of Oncorhynchus keta (Chum salmon)
Oncorhynchus keta
Male picture by Keeley, E.R.

التصنيف / Names الأسماء الشائعة | مرادفات | Catalog of Fishes(جنس, الانواع) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Oncorhynchus: Greek, onyx, -ychos = nail + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Walbaum.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range البيئة

بحري; المياه العذبة; مياه مخلوطة قاعية التغذية و المعيشة; أسماك صاعدة (Ref. 51243); نطاق العمق 0 - 250 m (Ref. 50550), usually ? - 61 m (Ref. 96339). Temperate; 0°C - 24°C (Ref. 35682); 67°N - 24°N, 130°E - 110°W (Ref. 117423)

التوزيع دول | مناطق الفاو | النظام البيئي | الظهور | Point map | مقدمة | Faunafri

North Pacific: Korea , Japan, Okhotsk and Bering Sea (Ref. 1998), Arctic Alaska south to San Diego, California, USA. Asia: Iran (Ref. 39702).

Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر

Maturity: Lm 70.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm FL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 559); common length : 58.0 cm TL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 3561); أعلا وزن تم نشرة: 15.9 kg (Ref. 40637); العمر: 7 سنين (Ref. 1998)

وصف مختصر الوصف الخارجي | قياسات المظهر الخارجي

الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 0; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 10-14; شوكة شرجية 0; أشعه شرجية لينه: 13 - 17; فقرات: 59 - 71. Distinguished by the lack of distinct black spots on the back and tail and by the presence of 18 to 28 short, stout, smooth gill rakers on the first arch (Ref. 27547). Pelvic fins with axillary process; caudal truncate to slightly emarginate (Ref. 27547). Large individuals are steel-blue dorsally, with speckles of black; silver on the sides; silvery to white ventrally. Males have tinges of black on the tips of its caudal, anal and pectoral fins. Spawning males are dark olive to black dorsally; grey-red with green vertical bars on the sides; dark grey ventrally; anal and pelvic fins with white tips. Spawning females resemble spawning males but less distinctly marked.

أحياء     المصطلحات (على سبيل المثال epibenthic)

Inhabits ocean and coastal streams (Ref. 86798). Migrating fry form schools in estuaries, remain close to shore for a few months and finally disperse to enter the sea (Ref. 1998). Epipelagic (Ref. 58426). Juveniles and adults feed mainly on copepods, tunicates and euphausiids but also on pteropods, squid and small fishes (Ref. 1998). Adults cease feeding in freshwater (Ref. 1998). Males and females die after spawning. The catch is mostly canned but also sold fresh, dried-salted, smoked, and frozen. Eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved, and baked (Ref. 9988). Utilized for caviar.

Life cycle and mating behavior النضج | التكاثر | وضع البيض | بيض | الخصوبة | Larvae

Enters freshwater during advanced stage of sexual development and spawning occurs almost immediately (Ref. 1998). Spawning occurs at depths of ~3 meters, current speeds of ~20cm/sec. near the head waters over sand and pebbles at 4-11° C water temperature. At spawning time the female excavates a hole of around 1 meter diameter and 50 cm depth before spawning can occur (Ref. 12218). Nest building is done by the female by lying on one side and lashing its tail to displace the sand and silt on the river bed. The pair then settles in the nest, mouths gape, and with rapid vibration of the pair, eggs and milt are released. The female then covers the nest. Males are aggressive and may spawn with different females; females likewise may spawn with other males and therefore builds different nests. Adults die after a week (Ref. 1998). A fish spawns 700-7,000 eggs in two to three egg releases. Eggs are ~300-3,500 per spawn. Egg size is ~6.7 mm, water temp. is 8-10°C at 60 days before hatching. Larva size is around 16 mm. Come springtime the juveniles go to the ocean and come back 3-4 years later to their exact birthplace. This fish reaches maturity in 2-4 years. Larvae are found around the spawning site, Juveniles are found around the coast. Juveniles migrate to the ocean at ~27-45 mm during February at water temperatures around 4° C (Ref. 12218). Reproductive strategy: synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity (Ref. 51846).

المرجع الرئيسي Upload your references | مراجع | المنظم | المتعاونين

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)


CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر للأنسان

  Harmless





استخدامات بشرية

مصائد: ذو قيمة تاجرية عالية; الأستزراع المائي: تجاري; لعبة سمكه: نعم; حوض مائي: احواض مائية عامة
FAO - الأستزراع المائي: الأنتاج; مصائد: landings, ملف الأنواع; Publication: search | FishSource | البحر حولنا

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مصادر علي الأنترنت

AFORO (otoliths) | Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | البحث في مراقبي الأسماك | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: جنس, الانواع | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - الأستزراع المائي: الأنتاج; مصائد: landings, ملف الأنواع; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: الوراثة, نيوكلوتيدة | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | قاعدة البينات الوطنية |
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