Merluccius merluccius, European hake : fisheries

You can sponsor this page

Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758)

European hake
添加你自己的观测位置在 Fish Watcher
AquaMaps webservice down at the moment
上传你的 图片 和 影像
Pictures | Stamps, Coins Misc. | 谷歌图片
Image of Merluccius merluccius (European hake)
Merluccius merluccius
Picture by Svensen, R.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Gadiformes (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes)
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 居于水底的; 深度上下限 30 - 1075 m (Ref. 58452), usually 70 - 400 m (Ref. 35388).   溫帶; 76°N - 18°N, 30°W - 42°E (Ref. 58452)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Norway and Iceland, southward to Mauritania. Also in the Mediterranean Sea and along the southern coast of the Black Sea.
東大西洋: 挪威與冰島,向南至茅利塔尼亞。 也在地中海中而且沿著黑海的南部海岸。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 42.7, range 20 - 70 cm
Max length : 140 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 1371); common length : 45.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 1371); 最大体重: 15.0 kg (Ref. 1371); 最大年龄: 20 年 (Ref. 35388)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 43-51; 臀鳍软条: 36 - 40. Inside of mouth and branchial cavity black. Second dorsal and anal fins notched. First vertebra and neural spine attached to skull. Vertebrae 50-52.
口腔与鳃室里面黑色。 第二背鳍与臀鳍凹槽。 第一个脊椎骨与髓棘依附于头盖骨了。 脊椎骨 50-52.

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Found usually between 70 and 370 m depth. Adults live close to the bottom during day-time, but move off-bottom at night. Adults feed mainly on fish (small hakes, anchovies, pilchard, herrings, cod fishes, sardines and gadoid species) and squids. The young feed on crustaceans (especially euphausiids and amphipods). Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Almost entirely marketed fresh, whole or filleted, to specialized restaurants or retail markets (Ref. 58452). Utilized fresh, dried or salted and frozen; can be steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Stocks seem to be over-fished (Ref. 35388).

通常在 70 与 370 公尺深之间发现。 在白天的时候生活于接近底部, 但是离开底部在晚上。 成鱼主要捕食鱼 (小的鳕鱼, 鱼,沙丁鱼,鲱鱼,鳕鱼鱼,沙丁鱼与雪科的种) 与乌贼。 幼鱼吃甲壳动物。 (尤其磷虾与片脚类动物) 生鲜使用, 乾燥或盐腌与冷冻; 能被蒸, 油炸, 微波而且烧烤。 (参考文献 9988) 分枝似乎是被过度渔捞.(参考文献 35388)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Continuous recruitment of oocytes connotes indeterminate fecundity for this species (Ref. 79799).東大西洋: 挪威與冰島,向南至茅利塔尼亞。 也在地中海中而且沿著黑海的南部海岸。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 October 2015

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性
FAO - 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 周边海洋

工具

特别资料

下载 XML

网络资源

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.9 - 15.4, mean 10.2 °C (based on 672 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00428 - 0.00535), b=3.11 (3.08 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.0 (8.4 - 10.4) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 103 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.07-0.3; tmax=20; Fecundity=7 million).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.80, Based on 16 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (65 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 10.9 [4.7, 24.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.195 [0.094, 0.386] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.5, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.248 [0.174, 0.355] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.5 [17.4, 56.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.3 [4.4, 41.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.26 [0.18, 0.38] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.