Merluccius merluccius, European hake : fisheries

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Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758)

European hake
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Merluccius merluccius   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Merluccius merluccius (European hake)
Merluccius merluccius
Picture by Svensen, R.

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes(Gattung, Arten) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Gadiformes (Cods) > Merlucciidae (Merluccid hakes)
Etymology: Merluccius: Latin, mar, maris = the sea + Latin, lucius = pike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser demersal; tiefenbereich 30 - 1075 m (Ref. 58452), usually 70 - 400 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 76°N - 18°N, 30°W - 42°E (Ref. 58452)

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Norway and Iceland, southward to Mauritania. Also in the Mediterranean Sea and along the southern coast of the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm 42.7, range 20 - 70 cm
Max length : 140 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 1371); common length : 45.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 1371); max. veröff. Gewicht: 15.0 kg (Ref. 1371); max. veröff. Alter: 20 Jahre (Ref. 35388)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Rückenflossenstacheln (insgesamt): 0; Rückenflossenweichstrahlen (insgesamt): 43-51; Afterflossenweichstrahlen: 36 - 40. Inside of mouth and branchial cavity black. Second dorsal and anal fins notched. First vertebra and neural spine attached to skull. Vertebrae 50-52.

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Found usually between 70 and 370 m depth. Adults live close to the bottom during day-time, but move off-bottom at night. Adults feed mainly on fish (small hakes, anchovies, pilchard, herrings, cod fishes, sardines and gadoid species) and squids. The young feed on crustaceans (especially euphausiids and amphipods). Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Almost entirely marketed fresh, whole or filleted, to specialized restaurants or retail markets (Ref. 58452). Utilized fresh, dried or salted and frozen; can be steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Stocks seem to be over-fished (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Continuous recruitment of oocytes connotes indeterminate fecundity for this species (Ref. 79799).

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator | Partner

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 123251)

  nicht bedroht (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 October 2015

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Harmless





Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: hoch kommerziell
FAO - Fischereien: landings, Artbeschreibung; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | FishWatcher Einträge suchen | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Gattung, Arten | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Fischereien: landings, Artbeschreibung; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: Genom, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationale Datenbanken | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Gehe zu, Suchen | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.9 - 15.4, mean 10.2 °C (based on 672 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00428 - 0.00535), b=3.11 (3.08 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.0 (8.4 - 10.4) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 103 growth studies.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  mittel, Verdopplung der Population dauert 1,4 - 4,4 Jahre. (K=0.07-0.3; tmax=20; Fecundity=7 million).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.80, Based on 16 stock assessments.
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (65 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 10.9 [4.7, 24.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.195 [0.094, 0.386] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.5, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.248 [0.174, 0.355] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.5 [17.4, 56.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.3 [4.4, 41.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.26 [0.18, 0.38] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.