Elasmobranchi (squali e razze) (sharks and rays)
(Electric rays) > Torpedinidae
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Peters.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
marino; salmastro associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 0 - 439 m (Ref. 11228), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 114953). Tropical; 2°S - 35°S, 17°E - 59°E (Ref. 114953)
Western Indian Ocean: from South Africa to Zanzibar and possibly as far north as the Kenyan coast. (Ref. 83892). Possibly occurring off smaller islands in the Indian Ocean but identity of specimens uncertain and need verification (Ref. 5578). Found in estuaries in South Africa during periods of high salinity (Ref. 114953).
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 2712)
Morfologia | Morfometria
Large ray with a small caudal fin and small papillae around the spiracles (Ref. 5578). Dull grey above with variable markings, often in the form of dark lines or large spots; white below (Ref. 5578).
Inhabits estuaries and intertidal zone down to 439 m (Ref. 5578). Found in sandy areas near deep rocky reefs (Ref. 2712). Feeds on fishes and cuttlefish (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Large prey probably stunned by its powerful electric discharge (Ref. 5578). Young born in the summer (Ref. 5578). Common accidental catch of anglers (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Torpedinidae. p. 112-113. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 2712)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Age/SizeAccrescimentoLength-weightLength-lengthLength-frequenciesMorfometriaMorfologiaLarveDinamica popolazioni larvaliReclutamentoAbbondanzaBRUVS
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneNutrientsMass conversion
CollaboratoriImmaginiStamps, Coins Misc.SuoniCiguateraVelocitàModalità di nuotoArea branchialeOtolithsCervelliVista
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 12 - 25.8, mean 19.1 °C (based on 171 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00771 - 0.03741), b=2.94 (2.75 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.75 se; based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 4.5 - 14 anni (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100).