Torpedo fuscomaculata, Black-spotted torpedo

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Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters, 1855

Black-spotted torpedo
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drawing shows typical species in Torpedinidae.

Classificatie / Names Lokale namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes(Genus, Soort(en)) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (haaien en roggen) (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Peters.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

marien; brak water rifbewoner; diepte 0 - 439 m (Ref. 11228), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 114953). Tropical; 2°S - 35°S, 17°E - 59°E (Ref. 114953)

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Western Indian Ocean: from South Africa to Zanzibar and possibly as far north as the Kenyan coast. (Ref. 83892). Possibly occurring off smaller islands in the Indian Ocean but identity of specimens uncertain and need verification (Ref. 5578). Found in estuaries in South Africa during periods of high salinity (Ref. 114953).

Grootte / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL mannelijk / geslacht onbekend; (Ref. 2712)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Large ray with a small caudal fin and small papillae around the spiracles (Ref. 5578). Dull grey above with variable markings, often in the form of dark lines or large spots; white below (Ref. 5578).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (bv. epibenthic)

Inhabits estuaries and intertidal zone down to 439 m (Ref. 5578). Found in sandy areas near deep rocky reefs (Ref. 2712). Feeds on fishes and cuttlefish (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Large prey probably stunned by its powerful electric discharge (Ref. 5578). Young born in the summer (Ref. 5578). Common accidental catch of anglers (Ref. 114953).

Levenscyclus en paargedrag Maturiteit | Voortplanting | Paaien | Eieren | Fecunditeit | Larven

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).

Hoofdreferentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : Carvalho, Marcelo | Medewerkers

Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Torpedinidae. p. 112-113. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 2712)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 125652)

  Onvoldoende gegevens (DD) ; Date assessed: 24 April 2018

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaar voor de mens

Other





Gebruik door de mens

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 12 - 25.8, mean 19.1 °C (based on 171 cells).
Fylogenetische diversiteitsindex (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00771 - 0.03741), b=2.94 (2.75 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trofisch niveau (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.75 se; based on food items.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  laag, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 4,5-14 jaar (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100).