Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Bighead carp : fisheries, aquaculture, aquarium

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Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845)

Bighead carp
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Image of Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Bighead carp)
Hypophthalmichthys nobilis
Picture by Ramani Shirantha

التصنيف / Names الأسماء الشائعة | مرادفات | Catalog of Fishes(جنس, الانواع) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Cypriniformes (Carps) > Xenocyprididae (East Asian minnows)
Etymology: Hypophthalmichthys: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, ophthalmos = eye + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335);  nobilis: nobilis, meaning noble (Ref. 10294).
More on author: Richardson.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range البيئة

; المياه العذبة; مياه مخلوطة قاعية التغذية و المعيشة; سمكة نهرية (Ref. 51243); نطاق العمق 0 - ? m (Ref. 59043). Temperate; 1°C - 38°C (Ref. 120904); 34°N - 21°N, 101°E - 123°E (Ref. 121042)

التوزيع دول | مناطق الفاو | النظام البيئي | الظهور | Point map | مقدمة | Faunafri

Asia: China. Introduced to numerous countries and has achieved a near global distribution. However, its breeding requirements are very specialized and stocks are maintained by artificial reproduction or continuous importation. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739). Often confused with Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Ref. 59043).

Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر

Maturity: Lm 64.2, range 55 - 70 cm
Max length : 146 cm SL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 59043); common length : 60.0 cm TL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 2059); أعلا وزن تم نشرة: 40.0 kg (Ref. 59043); العمر: 20 سنين (Ref. 59043)

وصف مختصر الوصف الخارجي | قياسات المظهر الخارجي

الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 3; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 7; شوكة شرجية 1-3; أشعه شرجية لينه: 12 - 14. Body with numerous scattered small black blotches. Keels extend from pelvic base to anus. Barbels absent. Posterior margin of last simple dorsal ray not serrated. Branched anal rays 13-14.5 (Ref. 13274). Differs from Hypophthalmichthys molitrix by having scaled keel from pelvic to anal, 240-300 long gill rakes, head length 27-35% SL, dark overall coloration, flank with dark, large, very irregularly shaped blotches, fin bases and inferior parts of head and belly yellowish (Ref. 59043).

أحياء     المصطلحات (على سبيل المثال epibenthic)

In its natural environment, it occurs in rivers with marked water-level fluctuations, overwinters in middle and lower stretches. Forages in shallow (0.5-1.5 m deep) and warm (over 24°C) backwaters, lakes and flooded areas with slow current. Feeds on zooplankton throughout its life under natural conditions (Ref. 120904). Breeds in very deep, very turbid and warm water above 18°C (usually 22-30°C), with high current (1.1-1.9 m/s) and high oxygen concentrations. Stocked to large rivers and almost all still water bodies as lakes and ponds. In aquaculture, adults can survive brackish water (up to 7 ppt) when released into estuaries and coastal lakes. Feeds mainly on zooplankton, but also takes algae as food (Ref. 59043). Bottom feeding fish (Ref. 6459). Undertakes long distance upriver migration at start of a rapid flood and water-level increase (in April-July depending on locality). Spawns in upper water layer or even at surface during floods. Spawning ceases if conditions change and resumes again when water level increases. After spawning, adults migrate for foraging habitats, Larvae drift downstream and settle in floodplain lakes, shallow shores and backwaters with little or no current. During autumn-winter, when temperature drops to 10°C, juveniles and adults form separate large schools and migrate downstream to deeper places in main course of river to overwinter (Ref. 59043). Marketed fresh and frozen.

Life cycle and mating behavior النضج | التكاثر | وضع البيض | بيض | الخصوبة | Larvae

Produces up to 100,000 eggs (Ref. 2059). Eggs are yellowish, transparent, and hatch after about 2 days at temperatures around 25°C while drifting downstream in the deep open-water layer (Ref. 59043).

المرجع الرئيسي Upload your references | مراجع | المنظم | المتعاونين

Kottelat, M., 2001. Freshwater fishes of northern Vietnam. A preliminary check-list of the fishes known or expected to occur in northern Vietnam with comments on systematics and nomenclature. Environment and Social Development Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region. The World Bank. 123 p. (Ref. 44416)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)

  نقص البينات (DD) ; Date assessed: 02 September 2010

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر للأنسان

  Potential pest





استخدامات بشرية

مصائد: ذو قيمة تاجرية عالية; الأستزراع المائي: تجاري; حوض مائي: احواض مائية عامة
FAO - الأستزراع المائي: الأنتاج, ملف الأنواع; مصائد: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | البحر حولنا

مزيد من المعلومات

العمر/ الحجم
نمو
الطول-الوزن
الطول-الطول
الطول- الترددات
قياسات المظهر الخارجي
الوصف الخارجي
Larvae
حركة انتقال اليرقات
توظيف
الوفرة
BRUVS
مراجع
الأستزراع المائي
ملف الأستزراع المائي
سلالات
جيني
تواتر الأليل
التوريث
الأمراض
معالجة
Nutrients
Mass conversion
المتعاونين
صور
Stamps, Coins Misc.
اصوات
التسمم باكل السمك
سرعة
نوع السباحة
منطقة الخياشيم
عظمة الأذن
دماغ
رؤية

أدوات

تقارير خاصة

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مصادر علي الأنترنت

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00861 - 0.01161), b=3.10 (3.06 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
مستوى غذائي (Ref. 69278):  2.8   ±0.33 se; based on food items.
المرونه (Ref. 120179):  وسيط, الحد الزمني الأدني لتضاعف عدد أفراد المجتمع 1.4-4.4 سنة (tm=3-5; tmax=20; K=0.15-0.27; Fec=50,000-1 million).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100).
فئة السعر (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 15.1 [5.5, 42.3] mg/100g; Iron = 0.422 [0.206, 0.879] mg/100g; Protein = 17.1 [16.0, 18.3] %; Omega3 = 0.543 [0.287, 1.037] g/100g; Selenium = 14.3 [7.2, 28.2] μg/100g; VitaminA = 10.6 [2.8, 41.9] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.271 [0.152, 0.501] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.