Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Liopropomatinae
Etymology: Liopropoma: Greek, leio = smooth + Greek, pro = in front of + Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 24 - 250 m (Ref. 11482). Tropical; 37°N - 19°S, 125°W - 70°W
Eastern Pacific: southern California to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 5227).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5227)
Inhabits deep walls and reefs; most common below 33 m. Reclusive, lurks in cracks, crevices and under large overhangs (Ref. 5227).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R. and D.R. Robertson, 1994. Fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 332 p. (Ref. 11482)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 11 - 18.5, mean 15.3 °C (based on 37 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 83.5 [48.4, 169.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.644 [0.373, 1.087] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.6, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.172 [0.110, 0.271] g/100g ; Selenium = 31 [17, 56] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 134 [45, 411] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.39 [0.92, 2.05] mg/100g (wet weight);