Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, Pink salmon : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum, 1792)

Pink salmon
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2050
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Oncorhynchus gorbuscha   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Pink salmon)
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha
Female picture by Østergaard, T.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Oncorhynchus: Greek, onyx, -ychos = nail + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335);  gorbuscha: gorbuscha which is the Russian name for this fish in Alaska (Ref. 1998).
More on author: Walbaum.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 250 m (Ref. 50550). 亚热带的; ? - 21°C (Ref. 12741); 79°N - 32°N, 117°E - 120°W (Ref. 117423)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Arctic and Pacific drainages from Mackenzie River delta, Northwest Territories, Canada to Sacramento River drainage, in California, USA; occasionally as far as La Jolla, southern California; also in northeast Asia (Ref. 86798). On Asia side, from North Korea to Jana and Lena drainages in Artic Russia. In Bering Sea north of about 40°N and from Bering Strait northeast to Point Barrow and northwest to Lena estuary (Ref. 59043). Introduced elsewhere. Occasionally hybridizes with Oncorhynchus keta producing fertile offspring (Ref. 28983).
北极圈与东太平洋: 阿拉斯加州与阿留申群岛 (参考文献 1998), 在美国的加拿大到南加州的来自西北地区的流域; Bering 与鄂霍次克海.(参考文献 1998) 西太平洋: 俄罗斯联邦 (参考文献 1998), 韩国东部与日本北海道.(参考文献 559) 进口在德国限制 (Anl。3 BArtSchV). 偶然地与产生肥沃的子孙的 大麻哈鱼〔Oncorhynchus keta〕 杂交。 (参考文献 28983) 亚洲: 伊朗.(参考文献 39702)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 45.0, range 40 - 50 cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 86798); common length : 50.5 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 12193); 最大体重: 6.8 kg (Ref. 27436); 最大年龄: 3.00 年 (Ref. 27547)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 10-15; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 11 - 19; 脊椎骨: 63 - 72. Distinguished by the presence of large black spots on the back and on both lobes of the caudal fin; the young have no parr marks (Ref. 27547). Body fusiform, streamlined, somewhat laterally compressed; moderately, deeper in breeding males (Ref. 1998). Mouth terminal, normally very little oblique but greatly deformed in breeding males, with lower jaw enlarged, turned up at tip, mouth unable to close (Ref. 1998). Adipose fin large; pelvic fins with axillary process (Ref. 27547). Fish in the sea are steel blue to blue-green on the back, silver on the sides and white on the belly; large oval spots present on the back, adipose fin and both lobes of the caudal fin (Ref. 27547). Breeding males become dark on the back, red with brownish green blotches on the sides; breeding females are similar but less distinctly colored (Ref. 27547). Differs from Oncorhynchus mykiss by having the following unique characters: anal fin with 11-15½ (usually 13½ ) branched rays; 177-240 scales in midlateral row; 26-33 gill rakers; large mature males with enormous hump; juveniles lacking parr marks; and lacking pink to red stripe on flank (Ref. 59043).
区别的特徵为那在背部与尾鳍的双叶上有大的黑色斑点; 幼鱼没有幼鲑横带。 (参考文献 27547) 身体纺锤型,简化, 略微侧扁的; 一般, 比较深的在繁殖期的雄性中.(参考文献 1998) 口端位又通常非常小斜角但是非常不成形在繁殖期的雄性中在顶端,与增大的下颌,出现了, 嘴不能关.(参考文献 1998) 脂鳍大的; 腹鳍有腋窝的羽翼突起.(参考文献 27547) 在海洋的鱼是铁蓝色到蓝绿色在背部上, 银色的侧边上与在腹面上的白色; 大的椭圆形的斑点位于尾鳍的背部,脂鳍与双叶之上。 (参考文献 27547) 繁殖期的雄性变成黑的背部之上, 侧边上红色的有褐色的绿色斑块; 繁殖雌性是相似的但是更不明显彩色.(参考文献 27547)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

An anadromous species which inhabits ocean and coastal streams (Ref. 5723, 86798). Epipelagic (Ref. 58426). Pelagic at the sea. In freshwater, lives in Montane and Piedmont rivers with moderate to fast current and gravel bottom. Spawns in riffles or at head of riffles in shallow water with current up to 1.5 m/s, and clean coarse gravel (Ref. 59043). Spends 18 months at sea after which spawning migration to the natal river or stream occurs; but because the species is less certain of its homing and there is a certain degree of wandering, streams as much as 640 km from natal streams may be used (Ref. 1998, 27547). Upon emerging from the gravel, fry immediately move downstream and remain inshore for a few months before going out to sea. Fry may feed on nymphal and larval insects while in fresh water, but may not feed at all. In the sea, young feed on copepods and larvacean tunicates, its diet shifting to amphipods, euphausiids and fishes as the fish grows (Ref. 27547). Other food include ostracods, decapod larvae, cirripeds, tunicates, dipterous insects (Ref. 1998, 27547). Fry may be preyed upon by birds and mammals while adults by marine mammals and large fish (Ref. 1998). Mostly sold canned (Ref. 1998) but also utilized fresh, smoked, and frozen; also valued for caviar, especially in Japan; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved, and baked (Ref. 9988). The smallest of the true salmon (Ref. 12218).

度过在海上的 18个月此后产卵回游到出生的河,否则水流出现; 但是因为此鱼种它的归巢是比较不某些而且有一个流浪的特定程度, 来自出生的溪流的溪流高达 640 公里可能是使用过的.(参考文献 1998,27547) 一从砾石出现,鱼苗紧邻在去向外到海洋之前移动下游而且保持近海数个月。 (参考文献 27547) 鱼苗可能吃 nymph 的与昆虫幼虫在淡水中的时候, 但是可能根本不吃。 在海洋中, 幼鱼捕食桡脚类的动物与 larvacean 被囊类, 它的食性转移到片脚类动物, 磷虾与鱼当鱼生长.(参考文献 27547) 其他的食物包括介形虫,十足目幼生,蔓脚类动物,被囊类,双翅目昆虫昆虫。 (参考文献 1998,27547) 鱼苗可能是被鸟与哺乳动物捕食虽然成鱼被海洋哺乳动物与大的鱼.(参考文献 1998) 大部份装成罐头销售 (参考文献 1998)了也被烟熏的生鲜利用 , 与冷冻; 也为鱼子酱评价了, 尤其在日本; 清蒸,油炸,火烤, 煮沸, 微波了, 而且烧烤了.(参考文献 9988) 最小的真实鲑鱼.(参考文献 12218) 这种的阿拉斯加州鲑鱼渔场已经被检定藉由海洋的总管职务会议 (http:// www.msc.org/) 当管理良好且族群能维持。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Adults develop secondary sexual characteristics during their upstream migration (Ref. 1998), which occurs any time from June to late September, depending on location (Ref. 27547). Male develop a humpback, an enlarged head and large teeth on both jaws that form a pronounced hooked type (Ref. 59043). The upstream run seems to be triggered by high water (Ref. 27547). Female builds the redd by lying on one side and using its tail, it displaces silt and light gravel to produce a deep trough. Male spends most of the time driving off intruding males. When the redd is completed, the female drops into it, followed immediately by the male. They open their mouths, vibrate and release eggs and sperm. In some cases, several males spawn with a single female. The eggs are then covered as the female digs a new redd at the upstream edge of the previous one. Adults live up to a few weeks after spawning before they die (Ref. 1998, 27547). Reported to die 10-20 days after spawning (Ref. 59043). About 1200-1800 eggs are laid. After hatching and the yellow egg yolk is absorbed, if the hatchling doesn't have a parr mark they go to the ocean and come again to the same birthplace stream the next year during spring after growing for 16-18 months. Survival rates are low, at 1-25% (taken from a Canadian river) (Ref. 12218). Reproductive strategy: synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity (Ref. 51846).北极圈与东太平洋: 阿拉斯加州与阿留申群岛 (参考文献 1998), 在美国的加拿大到南加州的来自西北地区的流域; Bering 与鄂霍次克海.(参考文献 1998) 西太平洋: 俄罗斯联邦 (参考文献 1998), 韩国东部与日本北海道.(参考文献 559) 进口在德国限制 (Anl。3 BArtSchV). 偶然地与产生肥沃的子孙的 大麻哈鱼〔Oncorhynchus keta〕 杂交。 (参考文献 28983) 亚洲: 伊朗.(参考文献 39702)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 130435)



Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋



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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 0.5 - 9.3, mean 3.3 °C (based on 572 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00644 - 0.02046), b=3.08 (2.92 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=2; tmax=3; Fec=800).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.87, Based on 6 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100).
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 45.6 [17.1, 112.4] mg/100g; Iron = 1.15 [0.61, 2.52] mg/100g; Protein = 19.6 [18.5, 20.7] %; Omega3 = 1.17 [0.59, 2.42] g/100g; Selenium = 186 [56, 609] μg/100g; VitaminA = 12.2 [3.4, 44.5] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.496 [0.313, 0.982] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.