Clarias gariepinus, North African catfish : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

North African catfish
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Clarias gariepinus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei > Siluriformes (Catfishes) > Clariidae (Airbreathing catfishes)
Etymology: Clarias: Greek, chlaros = lively, in reference to the ability of the fish to live for a long time out of water;  gariepinus: Named after its type locality, the Gariep river, the Hottentot name for the Orange river, South Africa..

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水 底中水层性; pH range: 6.5 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 28; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 80 m (Ref. 34291). 亞熱帶的; 8°C - 35°C (Ref. 6465); 42°N - 28°S, 17°W - 51°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Africa: almost Pan-African (Ref. 107916), absent from Maghreb, the Upper and (most of the) Lower Guinea and the Cape province and probably also Nogal province. Asia: Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria and southern Turkey. Widely introduced to other parts of Africa, Europe and Asia. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
非洲: 幾乎窪地-非洲, Maghreb ,上、下幾內亞與角省沒有出現與可能也 Nogal 省。 亞洲: Jordan ,以色列,黎巴嫩,敘利亞與土耳其南部。 廣泛地引進了非洲,歐洲與亞洲的其他部分。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。 貿易在德國限制 (Anl。3 BArtSchV).

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 30.8, range 34 - ? cm
Max length : 170 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 40637); common length : 90.0 cm NG 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 34290); 最大体重: 60.0 kg (Ref. 4537); 最大年龄: 15 年 (Ref. 94815)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 61-80; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 45 - 65; 脊椎骨: 56 - 63. Diagnosis: body depth 6-8 times in standard length, head 3-3,5 times in SL (Ref. 34290) or 30-37% SL (Ref. 28714). Head somewhat between rectangular and pointed in dorsal outline; snout broadly rounded; eyes supero-lateral and relatively small (Ref. 248). Teeth on premaxilla and lower jaw small, fine and arranged in several rows; nasal barbels 1/5-1/2 times as long as head in fishes longer than 12 cm, and 1/2-4/5 of head length in smaller individuals; maxillary barbels rarely shorter than head, usually somewhat longer and reaching to a point midway between origin of dorsal fin and insertion of pelvic fins; outer mandibular barbel longer than inner pair (Ref. 34290). Postorbital bones in contact; lower part of head with 2 black, lateral bands (Ref. 81644). Contrary to other Clarias species, Clarias gariepinus has a high number of gill rakers varying from 24-110 (Ref. 248, 34290, 81644, 101841), the number increasing with size of the fish; gill rakers long, slender and closely set (Ref. 248, 34290). Distance between occipital process and base of dorsal fin is short; dorsal fin almost reaches caudal fin; anal fin origin closer to caudal fin base than to snout, nearly reaching caudal fin (Ref. 248). Pelvic fin closer to snout than to caudal fin base (Ref. 248) or about midway (Ref. 28714). Pectoral fin extends from operculum to below 1st dorsal fin rays (Ref. 248). Pectoral spine robust (Ref. 248), serrated only on its outer face (Ref. 248, 81644), the number of serrations increasing with age (Ref. 248). Lateral line appears as a small, white line from posterior end of head to middle of caudal fin base; openings to secondary sensory canals clearly marked (Ref. 248).
鳃耙细的, 长的而且紧密地在一起; 在第一个鳃弓 24-110 上, 以鱼的大小在数字中增加.(参考文献 248) 眼小的。 鼻的触须 1/5- 1/在鱼中两倍长达头部长度超过 12 公分, 与 1/在较小的个体中的 2-4/头长中的 5。 上颌骨触须非短于头部, 通常略微更长的而且延伸到在腹鳍的背鳍起点与嵌入之间的点中途.(通常更长的在较小的标本中) 外部的颚触须长度超过内部的对。 胸鳍棘锯齿状的只有在它的外部侧边了。 通常深色的, 黑灰色上方, 乳白色的在;之下 一非常在头部的腹面的两边上的明显的黑色纵向的条纹。 幼鱼 (少于 9 公分长) 具有一个相似的彩色斑纹 , 除了黑色的条纹在头部上缺席以外; 较大的幼鱼 (10-30 公分与可能比较大的) 是有斑点又灰色-卡其色的上方。 (参考文献 34290) 体高 6-8 标准体长比率。 头长 (从吻尖到后头骨突起的末端)2.9-3.8 标准体长比率;(参考文献 43281) 头部宽度 1-1.5个 HL比率。 头部的上表皮粗糙地在成鱼中成粒状, 平滑的在幼鱼里面.(参考文献 34290)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Adults occur mainly in quiet waters, (vegetated fringes of) rivers and lakes, (isolated) pools (Ref. 248, 28714), irrigation and sewage effluent canals (Ref. 28714), and prefer rather shallow and swampy areas with a soft muddy substrate and calmer water (Ref. 78218). They may also occur in fast flowing rivers and in rapids (Ref. 248, 78218). Recorded as having been or being farmed in rice fields (Ref. 119549). The two known colour types appear to correlate with water turbidity and substrate type (Ref. 81644). Widely tolerant of extreme environmental conditions (Ref. 6465). Water parameters appear to play only a very minor role (Ref. 78218). The presence of an accessory breathing organ enables this species to breath air when very active or under very dry conditions. They remain in the muddy substrates of ponds and occasionally gulp air through the mouth (Ref. 6465). Can leave the water at night using its strong pectoral fins and spines in search of land-based food or can move into the breeding areas through very shallow pathways (Ref. 6868). Omnivorous bottom feeders which occasionally feed at the surface (Ref. 248), but essentially a predator feeding on crustaceans, insects and fish (Ref. 28714). Feed at night on a wide variety of prey (Ref. 6868) like insects, plankton, invertebrates and fish but also take in young birds, rotting flesh and plants (Ref. 6465). Migrate to rivers and temporary streams to spawn (Ref. 34291), and a major floodplain migrant, spawning throughout the flood season, in the Sudd (Sudan) (Ref. 28714). Also caught with dragnets. During intra-specific aggressive interactions, this species was noted to generate electric organ discharges that were monophasic, head-positive and lasting from 5-260 ms (Ref. 10479). Known as sharptooth catfish in aquaculture, a highly recommended food fish in Africa (Ref. 52863). Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten broiled, fried and baked (Ref. 9987).

主要生活在安静的水域, 湖,而且水池也但是可能出现在快速地流动河与在急流中.(参考文献 248) 广泛宽容的极端环境状况。 那有一个呼吸器官的配件使对呼吸空气的这种能够当非常活跃的或在非常干的情况。 逗留在池塘的泥质底部而且偶然地经过嘴巴吞空气。 (参考文献 6465) 能离开水在晚上使用它的强胸鳍与棘以找寻陆基食物或者能经过很浅的路移进养育区中。 (参考文献 6868) 偶然地吃在水表面的一个底部捕食者.(参考文献 248) 在各式各样的猎物身上觅食在晚上。 (参考文献 6868) 吃昆虫,浮游生物, 無脊椎動物,而且魚也捕食幼小的鳥, 腐爛肉與植物。 (參考文獻 6465) 迴游到河川與暫時性的溪流產卵.(參考文獻 34291) 也用拖網捕獲。 在種內的侵略性交互作用的時候,這種被注意產生單相的發電器放電,頭部-實在而且從 5-260 ms 持續.(參考文獻 10479) 在水產業被認定為 sharptooth 鯰魚了, 在非洲的一個高度地推薦的食用魚.(參考文獻 52863) 在市場上銷售生鮮和冷凍; 吃火烤了, 油炸了而且燒烤了.(參考文獻 9987)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Oviparous. Spawning takes place during the rainy season in flooded deltas. The fishes make a lateral migration towards the inundated plains to breed and return to the river or lake soon afterwards while the juveniles remain in the inundated area. Juveniles return to the lake or river when they are between 1.5 and 2.5 cm long (Ref. 34291). First sexual maturity occurs when females are between 40-45 cm and males between 35-40 cm. Eggs are greenish. Incubations lasts little (about 33 hours at 25°C).非洲: 幾乎窪地-非洲, Maghreb ,上、下幾內亞與角省沒有出現與可能也 Nogal 省。 亞洲: Jordan ,以色列,黎巴嫩,敘利亞與土耳其南部。 廣泛地引進了非洲,歐洲與亞洲的其他部分。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。 貿易在德國限制 (Anl。3 BArtSchV).

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Teugels, G.G., 1986. A systematic revision of the African species of the genus Clarias (Pisces; Clariidae). Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Centr., Sci. Zool., 247:199 p. (Ref. 248)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 126983)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 20 June 2018

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  潜能有害之物 (Ref. 4537)





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - 养殖: 产生; 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00668 - 0.00989), b=2.98 (2.93 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.2 (5.5 - 13.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 24 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.06-0.19; tm=2; Fec > 10,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (79 of 100).
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 6.69 [3.48, 35.37] mg/100g; Iron = 0.989 [0.530, 1.675] mg/100g; Protein = 17.2 [16.2, 18.3] %; Omega3 = 0.291 [0.094, 0.905] g/100g; Selenium = 81.1 [23.6, 249.3] μg/100g; VitaminA = 23.9 [6.3, 90.4] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.371 [0.257, 0.553] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.