Clarias gariepinus, North African catfish : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

You can sponsor this page

Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

North African catfish
上傳你的 相片 和 影像
Pictures | Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google 影像
Image of Clarias gariepinus (North African catfish)
Clarias gariepinus
Picture by Larsen, J.H.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei > Siluriformes (Catfishes) 鯰形目 (Catfishes) > Clariidae (Airbreathing catfishes) 塘蝨魚科 (Airbreathing catfishes)
Etymology: Clarias: Greek, chlaros = lively, in reference to the ability of the fish to live for a long time out of water;  gariepinus: Named after its type locality, the Gariep river, the Hottentot name for the Orange river, South Africa..

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水 底中水層性; pH range: 6.5 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 28; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 80 m (Ref. 34291). 亞熱帶的; 8°C - 35°C (Ref. 6465); 42°N - 28°S, 17°W - 51°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Africa: almost Pan-African (Ref. 107916), absent from Maghreb, the Upper and (most of the) Lower Guinea and the Cape province and probably also Nogal province. Asia: Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria and southern Turkey. Widely introduced to other parts of Africa, Europe and Asia. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
非洲: 幾乎窪地-非洲, Maghreb ,上、下幾內亞與角省沒有出現與可能也 Nogal 省。 亞洲: Jordan ,以色列,黎巴嫩,敘利亞與土耳其南部。 廣泛地引進了非洲,歐洲與亞洲的其他部分。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。 貿易在德國限制 (Anl。3 BArtSchV).

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 30.8, range 34 - ? cm
Max length : 170 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 40637); common length : 90.0 cm NG 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 34290); 最大體重: 60.0 kg (Ref. 4537); 最大年齡: 15 年 (Ref. 94815)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 61-80; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 45 - 65; 脊椎骨: 56 - 63. Diagnosis: body depth 6-8 times in standard length, head 3-3,5 times in SL (Ref. 34290) or 30-37% SL (Ref. 28714). Head somewhat between rectangular and pointed in dorsal outline; snout broadly rounded; eyes supero-lateral and relatively small (Ref. 248). Teeth on premaxilla and lower jaw small, fine and arranged in several rows; nasal barbels 1/5-1/2 times as long as head in fishes longer than 12 cm, and 1/2-4/5 of head length in smaller individuals; maxillary barbels rarely shorter than head, usually somewhat longer and reaching to a point midway between origin of dorsal fin and insertion of pelvic fins; outer mandibular barbel longer than inner pair (Ref. 34290). Postorbital bones in contact; lower part of head with 2 black, lateral bands (Ref. 81644). Contrary to other Clarias species, Clarias gariepinus has a high number of gill rakers varying from 24-110 (Ref. 248, 34290, 81644, 101841), the number increasing with size of the fish; gill rakers long, slender and closely set (Ref. 248, 34290). Distance between occipital process and base of dorsal fin is short; dorsal fin almost reaches caudal fin; anal fin origin closer to caudal fin base than to snout, nearly reaching caudal fin (Ref. 248). Pelvic fin closer to snout than to caudal fin base (Ref. 248) or about midway (Ref. 28714). Pectoral fin extends from operculum to below 1st dorsal fin rays (Ref. 248). Pectoral spine robust (Ref. 248), serrated only on its outer face (Ref. 248, 81644), the number of serrations increasing with age (Ref. 248). Lateral line appears as a small, white line from posterior end of head to middle of caudal fin base; openings to secondary sensory canals clearly marked (Ref. 248).
鰓耙細的, 長的而且緊密地在一起; 在第一個鰓弓 24-110 上, 以魚的大小在數字中增加.(參考文獻 248) 眼小的。 鼻的觸鬚 1/5- 1/在魚中兩倍長達頭部長度超過 12 公分, 與 1/在較小的個體中的 2-4/頭長中的 5。 上頜骨觸鬚非短於頭部, 通常略微更長的而且延伸到在腹鰭的背鰭起點與嵌入之間的點中途.(通常更長的在較小的標本中) 外部的顎觸鬚長度超過內部的對。 胸鰭棘鋸齒狀的只有在它的外部側邊了。 通常深色的, 黑灰色上方, 乳白色的在;之下 一非常在頭部的腹面的兩邊上的明顯的黑色縱向的條紋。 幼魚 (少於 9 公分長) 具有一個相似的彩色斑紋 , 除了黑色的條紋在頭部上缺席以外; 較大的幼魚 (10-30 公分與可能比較大的) 是有斑點又灰色-卡其色的上方。 (參考文獻 34290) 體高 6-8 標準體長比率。 頭長 (從吻尖到後頭骨突起的末端)2.9-3.8 標準體長比率;(參考文獻 43281) 頭部寬度 1-1.5個 HL比率。 頭部的上表皮粗糙地在成魚中成粒狀, 平滑的在幼魚裡面.(參考文獻 34290)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Adults occur mainly in quiet waters, (vegetated fringes of) rivers and lakes, (isolated) pools (Ref. 248, 28714), irrigation and sewage effluent canals (Ref. 28714), and prefer rather shallow and swampy areas with a soft muddy substrate and calmer water (Ref. 78218). They may also occur in fast flowing rivers and in rapids (Ref. 248, 78218). Recorded as having been or being farmed in rice fields (Ref. 119549). The two known colour types appear to correlate with water turbidity and substrate type (Ref. 81644). Widely tolerant of extreme environmental conditions (Ref. 6465). Water parameters appear to play only a very minor role (Ref. 78218). The presence of an accessory breathing organ enables this species to breath air when very active or under very dry conditions. They remain in the muddy substrates of ponds and occasionally gulp air through the mouth (Ref. 6465). Can leave the water at night using its strong pectoral fins and spines in search of land-based food or can move into the breeding areas through very shallow pathways (Ref. 6868). Omnivorous bottom feeders which occasionally feed at the surface (Ref. 248), but essentially a predator feeding on crustaceans, insects and fish (Ref. 28714). Feed at night on a wide variety of prey (Ref. 6868) like insects, plankton, invertebrates and fish but also take in young birds, rotting flesh and plants (Ref. 6465). Migrate to rivers and temporary streams to spawn (Ref. 34291), and a major floodplain migrant, spawning throughout the flood season, in the Sudd (Sudan) (Ref. 28714). Also caught with dragnets. During intra-specific aggressive interactions, this species was noted to generate electric organ discharges that were monophasic, head-positive and lasting from 5-260 ms (Ref. 10479). Known as sharptooth catfish in aquaculture, a highly recommended food fish in Africa (Ref. 52863). Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten broiled, fried and baked (Ref. 9987).

主要生活在安靜的水域, 湖,而且水池也但是可能出現在快速地流動河與在急流中.(參考文獻 248) 廣泛寬容的極端環境狀況。 那有一個呼吸器官的配件使對呼吸空氣的這種能夠當非常活躍的或在非常乾的情況。 逗留在池塘的泥質底部而且偶然地經過嘴巴吞空氣。 (參考文獻 6465) 能離開水在晚上使用它的強胸鰭與棘以找尋陸基食物或者能經過很淺的路移進養育區中。 (參考文獻 6868) 偶然地吃在水表面的一個底部捕食者.(參考文獻 248) 在各式各樣的獵物身上覓食在晚上。 (參考文獻 6868) 吃昆蟲,浮游生物, 無脊椎動物,而且魚也捕食幼小的鳥, 腐爛肉與植物。 (參考文獻 6465) 迴游到河川與暫時性的溪流產卵.(參考文獻 34291) 也用拖網捕獲。 在種內的侵略性交互作用的時候,這種被注意產生單相的發電器放電,頭部-實在而且從 5-260 ms 持續.(參考文獻 10479) 在水產業被認定為 sharptooth 鯰魚了, 在非洲的一個高度地推薦的食用魚.(參考文獻 52863) 在市場上銷售生鮮和冷凍; 吃火烤了, 油炸了而且燒烤了.(參考文獻 9987)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Oviparous. Spawning takes place during the rainy season in flooded deltas. The fishes make a lateral migration towards the inundated plains to breed and return to the river or lake soon afterwards while the juveniles remain in the inundated area. Juveniles return to the lake or river when they are between 1.5 and 2.5 cm long (Ref. 34291). First sexual maturity occurs when females are between 40-45 cm and males between 35-40 cm. Eggs are greenish. Incubations lasts little (about 33 hours at 25°C).非洲: 幾乎窪地-非洲, Maghreb ,上、下幾內亞與角省沒有出現與可能也 Nogal 省。 亞洲: Jordan ,以色列,黎巴嫩,敘利亞與土耳其南部。 廣泛地引進了非洲,歐洲與亞洲的其他部分。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。 貿易在德國限制 (Anl。3 BArtSchV).

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Teugels, G.G., 1986. A systematic revision of the African species of the genus Clarias (Pisces; Clariidae). Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Centr., Sci. Zool., 247:199 p. (Ref. 248)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 130435)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 20 June 2018


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated


  潛能有害之物 (Ref. 4537)


漁業: 低經濟; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO - 養殖: 產生; 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | FishSource |



下載 XML


Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00668 - 0.00989), b=2.98 (2.93 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.2 (5.5 - 13.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 24 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.06-0.19; tm=2; Fec > 10,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (79 of 100).
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 6.69 [3.48, 35.37] mg/100g; Iron = 0.989 [0.530, 1.675] mg/100g; Protein = 17.2 [16.2, 18.3] %; Omega3 = 0.291 [0.094, 0.905] g/100g; Selenium = 81.1 [23.6, 249.3] μg/100g; VitaminA = 23.9 [6.3, 90.4] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.371 [0.257, 0.553] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.