Oreochromis andersonii, Three spotted tilapia : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Oreochromis andersonii (Castelnau, 1861)

Three spotted tilapia
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Oreochromis andersonii
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei > Cichliformes (Cichlids, convict blennies) 鱸形目 (Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) 麗魚科 (Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335);  andersonii: Named for the Swede Charles John Anderson, who explored Namibia during the middle of the 19th century (Ref. 13337).
More on author: Castelnau.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 深度上下限 0 - 10 m (Ref. 54002), usually 3 - 6 m (Ref. 54002). 熱帶; 18°C - 33°C (Ref. 3); 12°S - 21°S

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Africa: Ngami basin, Okavango River; Cunene River and Mossamedes, Angola; upper Zambezi, Kafue River; middle Zambezi, Lake Kariba and Cabora Bassa since construction of dams. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (2265). Also reported from the Kasai system in Angola (Ref. 120641). Reported as introduced in Kasanka National Park (upper Congo River basin) in Zambia (Ref. 95585).
非洲: Ngami 流域, 奧塔萬戈河; 庫內內河與 Mossamedes, 安哥拉; 尚比西河上游, Kafue 河; 自從水壩的建築以後的中央尚比西河,卡裡巴湖與卡布拉巴薩。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 20.7, range 12 - 15 cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 40637); 最大体重: 4.7 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年龄: 13 年 (Ref. 13400)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 15 - 18; 背的软条 (总数): 11-15; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 9 - 13; 脊椎骨: 30 - 32. Diagnosis: male genital papilla bluntly conical with a narrow flange slightly notched in the middle; jaws enlarged in breeding males, which in this species are normally not less than 30cm TL; scales in lateral line series 31-35, usually 32-33; scales of cheek in 3 full rows; vertebrae 30-32; total number of dorsal rays 28-31. Pectoral fin in adults 34-43% SL (Ref. 2), very long (Ref. 1904). Depth of body 40.5-50.5% SL; color-pattern of non-breeding fish and female always including 3 or 4 conspicuous mid-lateral blotches and a red margin on dorsal and caudal fins; breeding male with red margins broader and brighter and general dark, iridescent purplish-brown color of head, back and flanks, masking the blotches; no series of vertical spots or vertical stripes on caudal fin; nest a simple circular depression (Ref. 2).
鉴别: 雄鱼生殖乳突钝地锥形在中央中具有一个狭窄的边缘微凹; 颚在繁殖期的雄性中增大了, 在这种方面通常不是少于 30 公分TL; 在侧线列 31-35 中的鳞片, 通常 32-33; 在 3 完整的列中颊的鳞片; 脊椎骨 30-32; 背鳍鳍条 28-31 的总数; 胸鳍当成鱼时 34-43% SL; 身体 40.5-50.5% SL 的深度; 非繁殖鱼与母鱼的彩色斑纹总是包括 3 或 4 在背鳍与尾鳍鳍上的显著的侧面中央的斑块与红色的边缘; 繁殖期的雄鱼有红色的边缘更宽与更明亮而一般的深色, 头部,背面與側面的彩虹色紫褐色顏色, 掩蔽斑塊; 沒有在尾鰭上的成列的垂直斑點或垂直的斑紋; 築巢一個單一的圓形凹窪。 (參考文獻 2) 描述: 深地身體 (參考文獻 12524,13337,52307,54048) 具有一個直的輪廓.(參考文獻 1887,2989,6465,12524,13337,54048) 吻圓的。 (參考文獻 1887,2989) 被在鼻孔與眼之間延伸至的小的嘴 (參考文獻 12524,13337,13400).(參考文獻 2989) 低的咽骨細長的.(參考文獻 54096) 齒細長的, 不濃密地擁擠 (參考文獻 2,54096), 後面的具有一個標示第二個尖頭或肩; 只有在第三個脊椎骨上的下方椎骨的隆起; microbranchiospines 位於弓的外部側邊之上 2 到 4; 在胸鰭基底與腹鰭之間的 5-8個鱗片; 尾鰭只在基底覆有鱗片的。 (參考文獻 2) 成魚的大雄魚有被延長的背鰭的後面的鰭條.(參考文獻 12524,13337) 胸鰭延伸到垂直的臀鰭起點; 腹鰭在排洩孔之間達到與肛門的; 尾鰭圓的; 鱗片圓形的.(參考文獻 1887,2989) 體色 身體銀灰色的與頭部與身體的上部比腹面部份顏色更深.(參考文獻 2,52307) 背鰭淡綠色的到褐色的; 胸鰭與腹鰭淡灰色的到綠色的; 臀鰭灰色的到綠色的在它的基底.(參考文獻 12524,13337) 邊緣背部的與臀鰭鮮紅色.(參考文獻 2,6465,7248,12524,13337,52193,52307) 柔軟部位背鰭與臀鰭有灰白的頂端與點 (參考文獻 2,1887,2989,6465,7248,52193) 有時也那是看得見的在尾鰭中.(參考文獻 2,52307) 3個突出的黑色斑點在鰓蓋的後面的部分上位於側面 (參考文獻 2,1887,2989,6465,12524,13337,54048) 與一個黑色斑點之上。 (參考文獻 2,1887,2989,12524,13337,54048) 這 3個屍體斑點從一個早的年齡 (參考文獻 12524,13337) 通常是看得見的, 而且在小的標本中更明顯.(參考文獻 6465) 在繁殖期的雄性身體與鰭顏色中變得比較明亮的, 藉由紅色的接縫在變得更密集 (參考文獻 2,7248,12524,13337,52193,52307) 的鰭上與吻部與頰呈現一個深的褐紅色的顏色.(參考文獻 12524,13337,54048) 尾鰭可能完全地出現紅色。 (參考文獻 52307) 稚魚在身體 (參考文獻 6465,7248,12524,13337,52193) 與 3-4個側面中央的斑點上銀色的有 6-9條不規則的細橫帶。 (參考文獻 13337) 幼魚有 吳郭魚 -標誌, 消失,或者在 ca 7 公分 SL 變成鰭的條紋花紋的部份; 向上到 ca 10個公分 SL 縱帶在身體上可能成為主流,而且側面中央的斑點可能是模糊的或不存在; 6-10個模糊的縱帶在死的魚中出現。 (參考文獻 2)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in both river and swamp habitats and is adapted to fairly fast-flowing rivers (Ref. 6465). Hardy, tolerating fresh and brackish water (up to 20ppt, Ref. 3), preferring slow-flowing or standing water; adults occupy deep open waters, juveniles remain inshore among vegetation (Ref. 7248, 52193). Prefers fairly deep, quiet water with some weed cover; hippo pools are a favoured retreat (Ref. 12524, 13337). Forms schools (Ref. 2, 12524, 13337). Mainly diurnal; a detritivore which feeds on fine particulate matter (Ref. 2), including algae (Ref. 246, 12524, 13337, 53992), diatoms, detritus (Ref. 7248, 52193, 53992) and zooplankton (Ref. 7248, 52193). Larger individuals also take insects and other invertebrates (Ref. 53992). Feeding regime is variable, the diet changes according to food availability (Ref. 6465). Female mouthbrooder (Ref. 87, 246, 6465, 12524, 13337). Fine angling and table species (Ref. 6465, 12524, 13337).

出现于河和沼泽栖息地而且被适应非常快速流动的河。 (参考文献 2,6465) 坚强地, 容忍淡水与半咸淡的水 (提高到 20?, 参考文献 3), 偏爱缓慢流动的或静止的水域; 成鱼占领深的开放水域, 稚鱼在植物之中保持近海。 (参考文献 7248,52193) 偏爱相当深的, 静止的水域有一些杂草表面; 河马水池是受优惠的休息寓所。 (参考文献 12524,13337) 形成鱼群。 (参考文献 2,12524,13337) 主要日行性; 吃细的微粒子的一个吃碎屑者有重大关系 (参考文献 2),包括藻類 (參考文獻 246,12524,13337,53992) ,矽藻,碎屑 (參考文獻 7248,52193,53992) 與浮游動物。 (參考文獻 7248,52193) 較大的個體也帶昆蟲與其他的無脊椎動物。 (參考文獻 53992) 進食政權是可變的, 食性改變根據獲得食物。 (參考文獻 6465) 雌性的口孵者.(參考文獻 246,6465,12524,13337) 細的釣魚與表格種.(參考文獻 6465,12524,13337)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawning did not occur in ponds at a temperature below 21°C (Ref. 2). Rarely more than one brood in a season (Ref. 87, 246), but known to breed at least twice a year under pond conditions (Ref. 12524, 13337). Males excavate saucer-shaped nests (Ref. 246, 314, 6465, 12524, 13337, 54048) that can be up to 75cm in diameter and 30cm deep, using mouth and fins (Ref. 2, 314, 52307), in the center of their territory (Ref. 52307), on a sandy substrate (any vegetation is uprooted with its mouth) and in water from 1-3m deep, where they display to attract females (Ref. 12524, 13337, 54048). Up to 40 nests can be found together (Ref. 6465). Females are the primary care-givers (Ref. 52307), moutbrooding eggs, larvae and fry; multiple broods are raised during the warmer months (Ref. 7248, 52193). She lays her eggs in the concavity on top of the nest, the male fertilizes the eggs whereupon the female takes the eggs into her mouth where they are incubated; males guard the nest and females against all intruders; parental care is exercised for the first few weeks after the eggs hatch (Ref. 12524, 13337).非洲: Ngami 流域, 奧塔萬戈河; 庫內內河與 Mossamedes, 安哥拉; 尚比西河上游, Kafue 河; 自從水壩的建築以後的中央尚比西河,卡裡巴湖與卡布拉巴薩。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Kullander, Sven O. | 合作者

Trewavas, E., 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. British Mus. Nat. Hist., London, UK. 583 p. (Ref. 2)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 126983)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A3e); Date assessed: 01 March 2007


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated


  潜能有害之物 (Ref. 6465)


渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - 养殖: 产生; ; Publication: search | FishSource |



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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.01262 - 0.02083), b=2.98 (2.94 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.1   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.17-0.22; tm=4; tmax=13).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.