(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Aluterus: Name from Greek meaning not free or detached, referring to the pelvis that does not form a spiny project (as it does in triggerfish) (R. Chandler, pers. Comm. 10/2014)..
More on author: Walbaum.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 3 - 900 m (Ref. 3592), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 3592). Subtropical; 46°N - 27°S, 97°W - 13°E
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Cape Blanc, Mauritania to Angola (Ref. 3592).
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 26340); common length : 40.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 3592)
Spine dorsali (totale): 2; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 32-39; Spine anali 0; Raggi anali molli: 35 - 41. Pelvic terminus always absent; head and body with numerous small round orange or orange-yellow spots; lips often blackish (Ref. 13442).
Usually found over bottoms with seagrass, sand, or mud (Ref. 3790). Juveniles are associated with floating Sargassum. Solitary or in pairs (Ref. 9710). Feeds on a variety of plants, including algae and seagrasses (Ref. 3790). Generally considered as trash fish, rarely consumed (Ref. 3790). Traded as an aquarium fish at Ceará, Brazil (Ref. 49392).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Harmelin-Vivien, M.L. and J.-C. Quéro, 1990. Monacanthidae. p. 1061-1066. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3592)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Pesca: pesca di sussistenza; Acquario: Commerciale
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 20 - 28, mean 25.6 °C (based on 842 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00939 - 0.04240), b=2.93 (2.76 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 15.4 [5.5, 43.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.54 [0.24, 1.41] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [15.9, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.159 [0.065, 0.358] g/100g ; Selenium = 37 [14, 102] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.1 [3.6, 108.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.785 [0.452, 1.359] mg/100g (wet weight);