Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Uranoscopoidei
(Sand dwellers) > Pinguipedidae
Etymology: Parapercis: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, perke = perch (Ref. 45335); lineopunctata: From the Latin words 'linea', line, and 'punctum', dot, in reference to the prevalence of dotted lines on the body. More on author: Randall.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory (Ref. 57562); depth range 3 - 35 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 15°N - 25°S, 100°E - 165°E (Ref. 57562)
Western Pacific: Sumatra, Sulawesi, Philippines, to Great Barrier Reef, Solomon Islands, Lord Howe Island.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57562); 7.6 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 16 - 18. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D V,21; A I,17; 14-16 (rarely 14 or 16) pectoral rays; 45-51 lateral-line scales; about 4 predorsal scales; ctenoid scales on cheek, in 5-6 horizontal rows; 3-4 + 8-10 gill rakers; front of lower jaw with 8 canine teeth; with palatine teeth; upper edge of subopercle with a prominent sharp spine; middle dorsal spine longest; membrane from last dorsal spine joined to base of first soft ray; body pale greenish to pale yellow dorsally, white below, with a series of 5 broad double dark bars on back, smaller posteriorly; lower part of body with a series of 9 bars, the top of each with a short blackish dash; a black line runs from the front of upper lip to eye, sometimes with 1-3 iridescent pale blue lines on snout and cheek below eye; 2 rows of black dots from behind eye along back to about middle of body, 1 row just above and the other just below lateral line; rear of cheek and lower opercle with black dots, often continuing in irregular rows anteriorly on body; first dorsal fin with a large dusky to dark brown spot at base, and often a submarginal dark brown or red line (or combined dark brown and red) (Ref. 57562).
The species is generally found in calm environments on sand or rubble near reefs. A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 057562). Minimum depth of 3 m reported from Ref. 57562.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 2003. Review of the sandperches of the Parapercis cylindrica complex (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), with description of two new species from the western Pacific. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers (72):1-19. (Ref. 57562)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.7 - 29, mean 28.2 °C (based on 534 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00290 - 0.01435), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 190 [107, 414] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.916 [0.555, 1.581] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [15.8, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.13 [0.07, 0.23] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.7 [13.8, 57.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 111 [38, 309] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.01 [1.33, 3.01] mg/100g (wet weight);