";} } ?> Torpedo fuscomaculata, Black-spotted torpedo

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Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters, 1855

Black-spotted torpedo
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Image of Torpedo fuscomaculata (Black-spotted torpedo)
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drawing shows typical species in Torpedinidae.

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes(Genre, Espèce) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Élasmobranches (requins et raies) (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Peters.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

marin; saumâtre récifal; profondeur 0 - 439 m (Ref. 11228), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 114953). Tropical; 2°S - 35°S, 17°E - 59°E (Ref. 114953)

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Indian Ocean: from South Africa to Zanzibar and possibly as far north as the Kenyan coast. (Ref. 83892). Possibly occurring off smaller islands in the Indian Ocean but identity of specimens uncertain and need verification (Ref. 5578). Found in estuaries in South Africa during periods of high salinity (Ref. 114953).

Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 2712)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Large ray with a small caudal fin and small papillae around the spiracles (Ref. 5578). Dull grey above with variable markings, often in the form of dark lines or large spots; white below (Ref. 5578).

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Inhabits estuaries and intertidal zone down to 439 m (Ref. 5578). Found in sandy areas near deep rocky reefs (Ref. 2712). Feeds on fishes and cuttlefish (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Large prey probably stunned by its powerful electric discharge (Ref. 5578). Young born in the summer (Ref. 5578). Common accidental catch of anglers (Ref. 114953).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur : Carvalho, Marcelo | Collaborateurs

Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Torpedinidae. p. 112-113. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 2712)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 125652)

  Données manquantes (DD) ; Date assessed: 24 April 2018

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

Other





Utilisations par l'homme

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

Plus d'informations

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Sources Internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Genre, Espèce | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: génôme, nucléotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Arbre de Vie | Wikipedia: aller à, chercher | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 12 - 25.8, mean 19.1 °C (based on 171 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00771 - 0.03741), b=2.94 (2.75 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.75 se; based on food items.
Résilience (Ref. 120179):  Faible, temps minimum de doublement de population : 4,5 à 14 années (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100).