(Bony tongues) > Notopteridae
(Featherbacks or knifefishes) > Notopterinae
Etymology: Chitala: Bangladesh local name; chitala: From rivers of Bengal & Behar..
More on author: Hamilton.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; eau douce démersal; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19. Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060)
Asia: Indus, Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mahanadi river basins in India. No valid records from Irrawaddy, Salween or other river basins of Myanmar. Reports of Chitala chitala from Thailand and Indo-China were based on Chitala ornata and those from Malaysia and Indonesia on Chitala lopis.
Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge
Maturity: Lm 75.5  range ? - 91 cm
Max length : 122 cm SL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 4832); common length : 75.0 cm SL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 2686)
Morphologie | Morphométrie
Épines dorsales (Total): 0; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 9; Épines anales 0; Rayons mous anaux: 117 - 127. The only species in which subadults and adults have a series of transverse gold or silver bars on the dorsum, but this color feature is not always present (Ref. 7431). Differs from C. ornata in never having ocellated spots and from C. blanci and C. lopis in never having a black spot on the pectoral fin base (Ref. 7431).
Obligate air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Adults inhabit freshwater rivers, lakes, beels, nullahs in the plains (Ref. 41236), reservoirs, canals and ponds (Ref. 1479). Feed on aquatic insects, mollusks, shrimps and small fishes (Ref. 1479). Females lay eggs usually on stake or stump of wood, males fan them with tail, keep them aerated and silt-free, guard them against small catfish and other predators; complete give-away to fishermen; females not observed at egg posts; moderately important food fish (Ref. 2686). Spawn once a year during May to August (Ref. 6459).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves
The male tends the clutch (Ref. 2060).
Roberts, T.R., 1992. Systematic revision of the old world freshwater fish family Notopteridae. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):361-383. (Ref. 7431)
Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 126983)
Menace pour l'homme
Utilisations par l'homme
Pêcheries: intérêt commercial mineur; Aquaculture: commercial; pêche sportive: oui; Aquarium: Commercial
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Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5166 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00537 - 0.03092), b=3.05 (2.84 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Résilience (Ref. 120179
): Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (tm=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 72.1 [24.2, 211.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.51 [0.55, 3.74] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.4 [15.7, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.358 [0.132, 0.991] g/100g ; Selenium = 104 [32, 279] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.1 [3.8, 70.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.686 [0.386, 1.490] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.