Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas; estuarina associadas(os) a recifes; intervalo de profundidade 10 - 188 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C; 35°N - 37°S, 19°E - 129°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa to the Hawaiian and Marquesan islands, north to southern Japan (Ref. 559) and the Ogasawara Islands, south to northern Australia. Hybrid with Caranx melampygus found in Hawaii (Ref. 58422).
Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 60.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 170 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 9710); common length : 100.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 5213); peso máx. Publicado: 80.0 kg (Ref. 4795)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 9; Raios dorsais moles (total): 18-21; Espinhos anais 3; Raios anais moles: 15 - 17; Vértebras: 24. This species is distinguished by the following characters: gill rakers (including rudiments) 5-7 + 15-17 = 20-24; breast naked ventrally, typically with a small to large patch of prepelvic scales; colour in life of adults, head and body silvery grey to black above, usually paler below; fins usually uniformly grey to black, fish from turbid coastal waters often with yellow fins, the anal fin usually brightest (Ref. 9894).
Adults are pelagic over sand and rock (Ref. 58302). They occur singly and inhabit clear lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). They feed on crustaceans (like crabs and spiny lobsters) and fishes at night (Ref. 4887). Juveniles are found in estuaries. Large individuals may be ciguatoxic. The largest trevally reaches 1.7 m in length and a weight of over 60 kg (Ref. 48635). Spawning occurs on shallow seaward reefs and offshore banks (Ref. 37816). Sold mostly fresh and dried salted.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Ameaça para o homem
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 9710)
Pescarias: espécies comerciais; Aquacultura: espécies comerciais; peixe desportivo: sim; Aquário: Aquários públicos
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.2 - 28.4, mean 26.8 °C (based on 1154 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.01552 - 0.02235), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Médio, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.08-0.11; tm=3.5).
Prior r = 0.56, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.83, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (82 of 100) .