分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海; 汽水性の; 深さの範囲 1 - 70 m (Ref. 189). Subtropical; 44°N - 36°S, 98°W - 32°W (Ref. 189)
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA perhaps occasionally straying north to Maine or even Nova Scotia (Canada), south to Fort Pierce, Florida (but not Florida Keys) and at least northern Gulf of Mexico; also from Gulf of Venezuela south to Uruguay. Replaced by Anchoa colonensis in the West Indies.
サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.3 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 37032); common length : 11.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 5217)
背面の脊椎 (合計): 0; 背鰭 (合計): 14-17; 肛門の骨 0; 臀鰭: 20 - 24. Snout pointed, about 3/4 eye diameter; maxilla long, tips pointed, reaching beyond hind border of pre-operculum, almost to gill opening; gill cover canals of panamensis-type. Anal fin origin below about midpoint of dorsal fin base. Anus nearer to anal fin origin than to pelvic fin tips. Silver stripe along flank (a dark line above) of uniform width, narrowed immediately behind band (Ref. 189). Back greenish, some yellowish on head. Melanophores outline all dorsal scales (Ref. 7251).
Forms dense schools, often in shallow waters close to shore. Able to tolerate a wide range of salinities, from hypersaline to almost fresh. Feeds on copepods when young, then on gastropods, foraminifers and an occasional ostracods and annelid. Breeding was recorded in April through to July at Beaufort, North Carolina. Breeds in harbors, estuaries and sounds. Eggs are elliptical, transparent, without oil globule, the yolk appearing `cellular' (Ref. 189). Great variation. Principal parasites are nematodes and cestodes (Scolex polymorphus and Rhynchobothrium sp.) and trematodes (Distomum appendiculatum and Distomum sp). Marketed as food (Ref. 37032).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Spawn in school (Ref. 205).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
水産業: 少数商業の; 餌: usually
協力者画像Stamps, Coins Misc.音シガテラ（食中毒の名前）速度泳ぐ 型式カマOtoliths脳視覚
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15 - 28, mean 24.4 °C (based on 480 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00416 - 0.00694), b=3.16 (3.12 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 高い, １５か月以下の倍増期間の最小個体群 (tm=1; Fec=5700).
弱み (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 336 [161, 732] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.85 [1.49, 5.51] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.3 [14.8, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 1.11 [0.47, 2.62] g/100g ; Selenium = 21.9 [8.0, 56.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.8 [2.5, 37.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.91 [1.21, 3.12] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.