Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Temperate; 4°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 49°N - 43°N, 8°E - 31°E
Europe: Danube and Dniestr drainages. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556)
Distinguished from its congeners by having three unique characters: first dorsal fin with 12-15 spines; second dorsal fin with 2 simple and 16-19½ branched rays; and lateral line with 82-95 4-6 scales. Additional character, but not unique, useful in the identification is the absence of scales on cheeks (Ref. 59043).
Adults are found in main course of large rivers, in fast-flowing waters. Active at night, feeding on aquatic invertebrates and small fishes. Spawning occurs on sand bottom in March-April. A female spawn with several males in a dense spawning groups. Eggs are very sticky and attached to gravel (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are very sticky and attached to gravel (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00224 - 0.00933), b=3.11 (2.92 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100).