Teleostei (teleosts) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Synodontidae
(Lizardfishes) > Synodontinae
Etymology: Synodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Schultz.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 88 m (Ref. 86942), usually 1 - 10 m (Ref. 11228). Tropical; 26°N - 24°S
Indo-Pacific: Gulf of Aden and East Africa to the Hawaiian and Gambier islands, north to the Ogasawara Islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11228); common length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3520)
soft rays: 8 - 10. Cheek behind mouth scaled; palatine teeth in a single band on each side (characteristic of the genus); membranous flap on anterior nostrils long and broad; dorsal tip of snout with a pair of small but prominent black spots (Ref. 2334).
Occurs in coral reefs (Ref. 11228). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Generally solitary and typically rests on hard surfaces, occasionally with a head down position on a steep slope (Ref. 1602). Feeds on small fishes and shrimps (Ref. 89972). Sold fresh in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cressey, R.F. and R.S. Waples, 1984. Synodontidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3520)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.3 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3181 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00216 - 0.00924), b=3.16 (2.99 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 78.2 [28.9, 176.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.638 [0.217, 1.373] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.8 [12.9, 18.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.0715 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 34 [13, 82] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 118 [29, 394] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.1 [0.6, 1.7] mg/100g (wet weight);