Parakneria alytogrammus

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Parakneria alytogrammus Kiwele Mutambala, Abwe, Schedel, Chocha Manda, Schliewen & Vreven, 2022

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drawing shows typical species in Kneriidae.

Classification / Names Κοινά ονόματα | Συνώνυμα | Catalog of Fishes(Γένος, Είδη) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Gonorynchiformes (Milkfishes) > Kneriidae (Shellears)
Etymology: alytogrammus: The name 'alytogrammus' is derived from the Greek 'alytos', meaning uninterrupted, and from the Greek 'gram', meaning line, and refers to the diagnostic uninterrupted lateral mid-longitudinal black band; this band is divided into a series of more or less rounded, black spots in the Congo basin congeners of this species; an adjective (Ref. 127997).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Οικολογία

; Γλυκού νερού βενθοπελαγικό. Tropical

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Africa: Upper Lufira River, in the Upper Lualaba basin, Congo River basin, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ref. 127997).

Μέγεθος / Βάρος / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.0 cm SL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 127997)

Short description Μορφολογία | Μορφομετρία

Ραχιαίες άκανθες (συνολικά): 0; Μαλακές ραχιαίες ακτίνες (συνολικά): 11; Εδρικές άκανθες 0; Μαλακές εδρικές ακτίνες: 9; Σπόνδυλοι: 41 - 42. Diagnosis: From all its congeners in the Congo Basin in general and the Upper Lualaba and Luapula-Mweru systems in particular, Parakneria alytogrammus differs by the combination of its lower number of transversal bands on each of the caudal-fin lobes, 2 vs. 3-5, and the presence of an uninterrupted lateral mid-longitudinal black band in fresh and preserved specimens vs. either a lateral mid-longitudinal band interrupted and forming a series of more or less rounded black spots in other species except in Parakneria damasi; in the latter species a lateral mid-longitudinal band with spots not very clearly separated is documented (Ref. 127997). It further differs from the three Parakneria species currently known from the Upper Lualaba basin, P. damasi, P. lufirae and P. thysi, by the narrow base of its pectoral fin, 4.8-5.6% of standard length vs. 8.2-10.1% for P. lufirae, 8.6% for P. damasi and 7.6-7.9% for P. thysi; in addition, it also differs from P. damasi only by its short pectoral fin, 18.6-18.9% of standard length vs. 24.5%, high head height, 49.2-52.9% of head length vs. 45.2%, and short pelvic fin, 15.0-15.4% of standard length vs. 17.8%; and by the low number of pectoral-fin rays, 16-17 vs. 20; likewise, it also differs from P. lufirae only by its narrow mouth width, 29.7-30.4% of head length vs. 34.6-43.7%, and its short pectoral fin, 18.6-18.9% of standard length vs. 21.2-23.6%; in addition, it also differs from P. thysi by the lack of black vertical blotches below the lateral mid-longitudinal black band vs. present in P. thysi (Ref. 127997). In addition, it differs from P. malaissei, the only species known from the Luapula-Mweru system, by its dorsal and pelvic fins being closer to the caudal-fin base, i.e. by a short post-dorsal distance, 36.4-36.6% of standard length vs. 38.6-41.1%, and a short post-pelvic distance, 40.0-40.6% of standard length vs. 41.4-44.1% (Ref. 127997). Furthermore, P. alytogrammus differs from the remaining Congo basin congeners, except P. abbreviata, by the narrow base of its pectoral fin, 4.8-5.6% of standard length vs. 8.7% for P. vilhenae, 7.1-8.1% for P. kissi, 7.6-7.8% for P. ladigesi and 6.7-8.0% for P. cameronensis; it differs from P. kissi by the high caudal peduncle height, 7.7-8.4% of standard length vs. 7.2%, the high number of total and caudal vertebrae, 41-42 and 12-13 vs. 38 and 10, and by its short pelvic-anal distance, 20.8-21.8% of standard length vs. 23.0-23.9%; it further differs from P. vilhenae and P. cameronensis by its short pectoral-fin length, 17.4-19.0% of standard length vs. 24.4% for P. vilhenae and 20.8-23.8% for P. cameronensis; and from P. cameronensis and P. ladigesi by its deep head height, 49.2-52.9% of head length vs. 41.2-43.2% for P. cameronensis and 40.5-43.4% for P. ladigesi; finally, it also differs from P. abbreviata by the high number of scales on the lateral line, 90-98 vs. 75-76 (Ref. 127997). Lastly, P. alytogrammus differs from P. fortuita, its only currently known congener from southern Africa by having a continuous black band along the lateral line, the presence of a vertical transverse band at the base of the caudal fin vs. two spots, the one behind the other at the base of the caudal fin, the last one being larger than the first one, a well indented caudal fin with two pointed lobes, vs. a moderately indented caudal fin, with two more or less rounded lobes, and a slightly more backward position of its pelvic fin, i.e., inserted below the fourth dorsal-fin ray, vs. pelvic fin inserted below the third dorsal-fin ray; in addition, P. alytogrammus differs from P. fortuita by a short post-pectoral distance, 72.8-73.8% of standard length vs. 77.3%, and a deep body height, 13.5-14.8% of standard length vs. 10.3% (Ref. 127997).

Βιολογία     Γλωσσάρι (π.χ. epibenthic)

Found mostly in calm waters during the seasonal floods; water depth varied between 0.5 and 1.5 m at its locality towards the grassy banks; the water of the river was muddy in appearance towards the banks, but tended to become clearer with increasing depth (Ref. 127997).

Life cycle and mating behavior Γεννητική Ωρίμανση | Αναπαραγωγή | Γεννοβολία | Αβγά | Γονιμότητα | Προνύμφες

Main reference Upload your references | Αναφορές | Συντονιστής | Συνεργάτες

Kiwela Mutambala, P., E. Abwe, F.D.B. Schedel, A. Chocha Manda, U.K. Schliewen and E.J.W.M.N. Vreven, 2022. A new Parakneria Poll 1965 (Gonorhynchiformes: Kneriidae), ‘Mikinkidi’ from the Upper Lufira basin (Upper Congo: DRC): evidence from a morphologic and DNA barcoding integrative approach. J. Fish Biol. 2022;1-23. (Ref. 127997)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

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Διαδικτυακές πηγές

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = No PD50 data   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100).