分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(属, 种) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Teleostei > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Gadidae
(Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Pollachius: Scottish dialect, podlock, paddle = bumpfish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
海洋 底中水层性; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 40 - 200 m (Ref. 6302), usually 40 - 100 m (Ref. 54707). 溫帶; 72°N - 36°N, 25°W - 28°E
Northeast Atlantic: Iceland, the Faeroes and Norway to the Bay of Biscay (Ref. 1371); also southern Baltic Sea (Ref. 89342) with records from Poland, Latvia and Estonia (Refs. 36252, 52079).
東北大西洋: 挪威，法羅群島與冰島到比斯開灣。 記錄來自愛沙尼亞了。 (參考文獻 33247)
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm 41.0, range 42 - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 1371); common length : 75.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 1371); 最大体重: 18.1 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年龄: 8 年 (Ref. 1371)
背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 29-33; 臀鳍软条: 27 - 30; 脊椎骨: 52 - 55. Lower jaw distinctly projecting beyond upper ones. Lacks a chin barbel. Dark lateral line that sharply curves over the pectoral fin and continues over whole body. No dark spot at pectoral fin base. Dorsal and anal fin interspaces short. Sensory canals with large pores on head. Body color is variable; dark dorsally, sharply distinguished from silver-gray sides and belly; the upper part of the body with yellow to orange streaks or blotches; the lateral line greenish. The fins uniformly dark except for the pelvic fins which are yellowish.
下颌明显突出超过上面的一些。 侧线连续的全身之上。 在胸鳍基底的没有深色斑点。 背鳍与臀鳍留短的间隔。 感觉管在头部上有大的孔。 体色是可变的; 黑的背面, 锐利地与银灰色侧边与腹面区分; 身体有的上半部黄色到橘色的条纹或斑块; 侧线呈绿色的。 鳍全黑色除了腹鳍那是淡黄色的。
Found in inshore waters but also down to 200 m depth, in areas with hard bottoms. Juveniles are pelagic, spending 2-3 years near the coast including rocky areas, kelp beds, sandy shores and estuaries (Ref. 1371, 58137, 89343, 89362). Juveniles may form schools with saithe (Pollachius virens) (Ref. 88187), and have also been found solitary and defending their feeding territory (Refs. 42174, 89363). Larger individuals move to the open sea and are often found around rocky areas at 40-100 m depth (Ref. 1371). Also observed around shipwrecks and oil platforms (Ref. 88187). Adults occur singly or in small dispersed shoals but is known to form dense shoals on spawning grounds (Ref. 89364). Suggested to undertake spawning migrations (Ref. 88171). Caught as bycatch in cod and saithe fisheries. Flesh is dry but of good flavor (Ref. 35388). Classified as a "hearing generalist" (89365); has also been found to produce sound. Juveniles have been reported to make repeated short grunts during competitive feeding and aggressive encounters (89366).
大洋性到大洋底栖性鱼种, 大部份接近海岸硬底质上。 大部份捕食鱼与附随地吃头足类动与甲壳动物 (虾与螃蟹).(参考文献 1371) 在鳕鱼与 saithe 渔场中捕捉如误捕了。 肉是干但是好滋味.(参考文献 35388)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
Oviparous and gonochorous (Ref. 205).東北大西洋: 挪威，法羅群島與冰島到比斯開灣。 記錄來自愛沙尼亞了。 (參考文獻 33247)
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
渔业: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 7 - 11.9, mean 8.9 °C (based on 283 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00587 - 0.00815), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.19; tmax=8).
Prior r = 0.63, 95% CL = 0.42 - 0.95, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Very high vulnerability (82 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 8.53 [3.62, 29.51] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.222 [0.085, 0.575] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [15.7, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.544 [0.279, 1.082] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.4 [8.6, 76.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.8 [4.6, 71.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.401 [0.206, 0.797] mg/100g (wet weight);