Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Silver carp : fisheries, aquaculture

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Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844)

Silver carp
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Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
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Классификация / Names народные названия | синонимы | Catalog of Fishes(род, виды) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Cypriniformes (Carps) > Xenocyprididae (East Asian minnows)
Etymology: Hypophthalmichthys: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, ophthalmos = eye + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335);  molitrix: molitrix, approximately grinder (referring to the pharyngeal grinding apparatus) (Ref. 10294).
More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range экология

; пресноводный; солоноватоводный донно-пелагический; мигрирует в реке (Ref. 51243); пределы глубины 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6898). Subtropical; 6°C - 30°C (Ref. 37797); 63°N - 8°N, 73°E - 148°E (Ref. 120939)

распространение страны | регионы FAO | Ecosystems | места находок | Point map | интродукции | Faunafri

Asia: Native to most major Pacific dainages of East Asia from Amur to Xi Jiang, China (Ref. 59043) and Hanoi, Vietman (Ref. 120939). Introduced around the world for aquaculture and control of algal blooms. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739). Often confused with Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Ref. 59043).

Length at first maturity / Size / Вес / Возраст

Maturity: Lm 51.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL самец/пол неопределен; (Ref. 86798); common length : 18.0 cm SL самец/пол неопределен; (Ref. 35840); наибольший вес (опубликованные данные): 50.0 kg (Ref. 30578); наибольший возраст (опубликованны данные): 20 годы (Ref. 121658)

Краткое описание морфология | морфометрия

колючие лучи спинного плавника (общее число): 1 - 3; членистые (мягкие) лучи спинного плавника (общее число): 6-7; колючие лучи анального плавника 1-3; членистые (мягкие) лучи анального плавника: 10 - 14. Body olivaceous to silvery. Barbels absent. Keels extend from isthmus to anus. Edge of last simple dorsal ray not serrated. Branched anal rays 12-13.5 (Ref. 13274). Differs from Hypophthalmichthys nobilis by having sharp scaleless keel from pectoral region to anal origin, 650-820 long, slender gill rakers, head length 24-29% SL, and plain pale coloration, greenish grey above, whitish below (Ref. 59043).

биология     глоссарий (например epibenthic)

Found in their natural range in rivers with marked water-level fluctuations and overwinters in middle and lower stretches, swimming just beneath the surface. They feed in shallow (0.5-1.0 m deep) and warm (over 21°C) backwaters, lakes and flooded areas with slow current on phytoplankton and zooplankton (Ref. 30578, 10294). Bigger individuals from about 1.5 cm SL feed only on phytoplankton while larvae and small juveniles prey on zooplankton (Ref. 59043). Adults breed in rivers or tributaries over shallow rapids with gravel or sand bottom, in upper water layer or even at surface during floods when the water level increases by 50-120 cm above normal level. Conditions for spawning include high current (0.5-1.7 m/s), turbid water, temperatures above 15°C (usually 18-26°C) and high oxygen concentrations (Ref. 59043). Spawning ceases if conditions change (especially sensitive to water-level fall) and resumes again when water level increases. Juveniles and adults form large schools during spawning season. Mature individuals undertake long distance upriver migration at start of a rapid flood and water-level increase, able to leap over obstacles up to 1 m. After spawning, adults migrate to foraging habitats, In autumn, adults move to deeper places in main course of river where they remain without feeding. Larvae drift downstream and settle in floodplain lakes, shallow shores and backwaters with little or no current (Ref. 59043). In aquaculture, it can survive brackish water (up to 7 ppt) when released into estuaries and coastal lakes (Ref. 59043). Escape from fish farms are widely known even as they are stocked in large rivers and almost all still water bodies like lakes and ponds. Utilized fresh for human consumption and also introduced to many countries where its ability to clean reservoirs and other waters of clogging algae is appreciated even more than its food value (Ref. 9987). One of among 3 or 4 species of cyprinids whose world production in aquaculture exceeds 1 million tons per year (Ref. 30578).

Life cycle and mating behavior половая зрелость | размножение | нерест | икра | Fecundity | личинки

Основная ссылка Upload your references | ссылки | координатор | соавторы

Skelton, P.H., 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)

Статус Красного Списка МСОП (Ref. 126983)

  Близок к исчезновению (NT) ; Date assessed: 20 January 2011

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Угроза для людей

  Potential pest





Использование человеком

рыболовство: коммерческий; аквакультура (рыбоводство): коммерческий
FAO - аквакультура (рыбоводство): production, Видовой профиль; рыболовство: landings, Видовой профиль; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

дополнительная информация

народные названия
синонимы
обмен веществ
хищники
экотоксикология
размножение
половая зрелость
нерест
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
икра
Развитие икры
ссылки
аквакультура (рыбоводство)
особенности рыбоводства
степень растяжения
генетика
частоты аллелей
наследуемость
болезни
обработка
Nutrients
Mass conversion
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Ciguatera
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тип плавания
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Otoliths
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зрение

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00773 - 0.01028), b=3.10 (3.06 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.6 (4.5 - 6.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
устойчивость к внешним воздействиям (Ref. 120179):  средний (среднего размера), минимальное время удвоения популяции 1.4-4.4 года (K=0.16-0.29; tm=2-6).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (55 of 100).
Категория цены (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 37.9 [16.1, 116.8] mg/100g; Iron = 1.37 [0.69, 2.65] mg/100g; Protein = 17.3 [16.1, 18.5] %; Omega3 = 0.306 [0.176, 0.554] g/100g; Selenium = 30.1 [16.4, 59.9] μg/100g; VitaminA = 8.45 [2.15, 37.85] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.445 [0.263, 0.805] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.