Dipturus batis, Blue skate : fisheries, gamefish

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Dipturus batis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Blue skate
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Dipturus batis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Dipturus batis (Blue skate)
Dipturus batis
Male picture by Cambraia Duarte, P.M.N. (c)ImagDOP

رده بندی / Names اسامي عام | مترادف | Catalog of Fishes(جنس, گونه ها) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

(كوسه ها و سپرماهيان) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range بوم شناسي

دريايي نزديك كف زي; تغييرات عمق 100 - 1000 m (Ref. 4426), usually 30 - 600 m (Ref. 127222). Temperate; 70°N - 48°N, 30°W - 20°E (Ref. 127222)

پراكنش كشورها | مناطق سازمان خوار و بار جهاني (FAO) | Ecosystems | ظهور | Point map | معرفي | Faunafri

Northeastern Atlantic: Iceland to the British isles; it was formerly more widespread, including the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa, but the range is thought to be reduced due to fishing.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / سن

Maturity: Lm 160.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 285 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 35388); common length : 100.0 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 3261); بيشينه وزن گزارش شده: 113.0 kg (Ref. 114424); بيشينه سن گزارش شده: 51 سال ها (Ref. 4483)

توصيف مختصر ريخت شناسي | ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري

خارهاي باله پشتي (کل): 0; خارهاي باله مخرجي 0; شعاع نرم باله مخرجي: 0. This species is characterized by the following: snout broadly angular, length 5-6.3 times orbit length; disc broadly rhombic, anterior margin deeply concave; a row of 12-31 predorsal thorns in median row along tail (disc smooth in young; denticles confined to dorsal head and along anterior disc margin on both surfaces in adults; disc thorns small in young, largely absent in adults); lateral thorns on tail perpendicular to body axis; interspace between dorsal fins 1.2 ± 0.4 TL, the fins rounded, upright, near tail tip; upper surface olive-grey or brown with a variable pattern of light blotches, with yellowish ring-like markings; underside greyish; iris yellowish (Ref. 114953, 127223).

زيست شناسي     واژه نامه (بعنوان مثال epibenthic)

Benthic species in shelf and slope waters, mainly within the 200 m range along the continental shelf, but down to 600 m along continental slopes and seamounts (Ref. 127222). Feeds on all kinds of bottom invertebrates and fish, including other skates (Ref. 114953). Oviparous, with long embryonic development. Males reach maturity at ca. 115 cm TL, females at 123 cm TL; birth size at ca. 21 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Biology may be unclear due to past taxonomic confusion Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Mate in spring and the egg capsules are laid during the summer. Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 10.6-24.5 cm long and 5.0-14.5 cm wide (Ref. 41250). About 40 eggs per individual are laid annually (Ref. 41250). Flesh is marketed fresh or smoked (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior بلوغ | تولید مثل | تخم ریزی | تخم ها | Fecundity | توزاد ( لارو)

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Egg-cases laid in spring and summer, very large (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).

مآخذ اصلی Upload your references | مراجع | هماهنگ كننده : McEachran, John | همكاران

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

وضعيت در فهرست قرمز IUCN (Ref. 126983)

  درمعرض خطر بحرانی (CR) (A2bcd); Date assessed: 02 April 2021


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر برای انسان ها


استفاده انسانی

ماهي گيري – شيلات: ارزش تحاري اندك; ماهي ها ي سرگرم كننده: بله
FAO - ماهي گيري – شيلات: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

اطلاعات بيشتر

اسامي عام
سوخت و ساز
سم شناسي بوم زيستي
تولید مثل
تخم ریزی
Spawning aggregation
تخم ها
نمو تخم
طول - وزن
طول - طول
نوسانات طولی
ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري
ريخت شناسي
توزاد ( لارو)
پويايي لاروي
آبزي پروري
نمايه آبزي پروري
تواتر آلل ها
بيماري ها
Mass conversion
عکس ها
Stamps, Coins Misc.
نوع شناگری
منطقه آبششي


گزارش های ويژه

بارگيری XML

منابع اينترنتي

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | فيش واچر را ببينيد | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: جنس, گونه ها | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - ماهي گيري – شيلات: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: ژنوم, نوکلئوتيد | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | پايگاه هاي داده ها | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: برو, جستجو | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 7.1 - 15, mean 9.8 °C (based on 243 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00324 (0.00195 - 0.00536), b=3.20 (3.06 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 19.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
جهندگی (Ref. 120179):  خیلی آهسته, كمينه زمان لازم براي دو برابر شدن جمعيت بيش از 14 سال (K=0.06; tm=11; tmax=51; fec = 40).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100).
طبقه قيمت (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 5.44 [0.70, 105.27] mg/100g; Iron = 0.623 [0.058, 8.004] mg/100g; Protein = 16.2 [14.1, 18.2] %; Omega3 = 0.357 [0.147, 0.840] g/100g; Selenium = 50.9 [9.5, 261.5] μg/100g; VitaminA = 4.02 [0.31, 51.49] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.371 [0.023, 4.306] mg/100g (wet weight);