Sprattus sprattus, European sprat : fisheries, bait

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Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European sprat
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sprattus sprattus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sprattus sprattus (European sprat)
Sprattus sprattus
Picture by Svensen, R.

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes(Genre, Espèce) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens)
Etymology: Sprattus: Old German, sprotte (1611) = a small fish, Clupea sp. (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

marin; saumâtre; océanodrome (Ref. 51243); profondeur 10 - 150 m (Ref. 6302). Temperate; 69°N - 30°N, 11°W - 42°E

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: North Sea and adjacent waters as far north as the Lofoten Area and the west of the British Isles, and Baltic Sea south to Morocco; also in northern Mediterranean (Gulf of Lion and the Adriatic Sea) and Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 10.1, range 8 - 12 cm
Max length : 16.0 cm SL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 188); common length : 12.0 cm SL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 188); âge max. reporté: 6 années (Ref. 3561)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Épines dorsales (Total): 0; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 13-21; Épines anales 0; Rayons mous anaux: 12 - 23. Lower jaw slightly projecting, gill cover without any bony radiating striae, teeth rarely present on vomer; belly with a strong keel of scutes; last two anal fin rays not enlarged. No dark spots on flanks. Pterotic bulla absent.

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Usually inshore schooling, sometimes entering estuaries (especially the juveniles) and tolerating salinities as low as 4 ppt. Shows strong migrations between winter feeding and summer spawning grounds. Moves to the surface at night. Feeds on planktonic crustaceans (Ref. 9900). Spawns at depths of 10-20 m producing 6,000-14,000 pelagic eggs (Ref. 35388). Some spawn almost throughout the year, mainly in spring and summer, near the coast or up to 100 km out to sea, the young drifting inshore. Sold as 'brislings' to canneries. Sprat are used in the production of fish meal and as mink food, less for human consumption (Ref. 9900). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be pan-fried and broiled (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Some spawn almost year round but mainly in spring and summer, near to the coast or up to 100 km out to sea, the young drifting inshore. Individual period of spawning takes about two months (Ref. 92054).

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur | Collaborateurs

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 126983)

  Préoccupation mineure (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 July 2018

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)





Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: hautement commercial; appât: usually
FAO - pêcheries: landings, Résumé espèce; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Outils

Articles particuliers

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Sources Internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Genre, Espèce | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - pêcheries: landings, Résumé espèce; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: génôme, nucléotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Bases de données nationales | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Arbre de Vie | Wikipedia: aller à, chercher | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 4.3 - 15.3, mean 9.5 °C (based on 530 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00491 - 0.00675), b=3.09 (3.04 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.07 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.2 (1.7 - 2.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 23 growth studies.
Résilience (Ref. 120179):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (rm=1.7; K=0.14-0.77; tm=1-2; tmax=6; Fec=2,000 (batch fec)).
Prior r = 0.49, 95% CL = 0.32 - 0.74, Based on 13 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (25 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Low vulnerability (15 of 100).
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 69.8 [34.7, 136.5] mg/100g; Iron = 0.454 [0.171, 1.290] mg/100g; Protein = 19.9 [17.2, 22.6] %; Omega3 = 0.601 [0.328, 1.136] g/100g; Selenium = 8.55 [3.88, 18.40] μg/100g; VitaminA = 66.3 [13.8, 248.5] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.429 [0.200, 1.835] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.