Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Sardinella: Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia; diminutive (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - 50 m (Ref. 188), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 31°N - 30°S, 31°E - 155°E (Ref. 188)
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, Persian Gulf, East African coasts, Madagascar eastward to Indonesia and the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), north to Taiwan and south to Papua New Guinea (Ref. 188).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); common length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 19 - 23. Diagnosis: Body somewhat compressed but variable, from slender to moderately deep, its depth 25-40% of standard length; total number of scutes 29-33; lower gillrakers 41-68, at 4 to 15 cm standard length, increasing a little with size of fish; vertical striae on scales not meeting at centre, hind part of scale with a few perforations and somewhat produced posteriorly; a dark spot at dorsal fin origin (Ref. 188). It closely resembles Sardinella fimbriata and S. dayi, which have more lower gill rakers, 54-82 in S. fimbriata and 88-126 in S. dayi; and can be confused with S. gibbosa and S. sindensis, which have more scutes, 31-34; other similar species have more scutes or more gillrakers or overlapping scale striae or no spot at dorsal fin origin or caudal tips black, or a combination of some of these features (Ref. 122366).
Found in coastal waters (Ref. 30573). Forms schools. Feeds on zooplankton and phytoplankton (Ref. 30573). Marketed fresh, dried, dried-salted, and made into fish balls.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.9 - 29.2, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1450 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00268 - 0.00711), b=2.94 (2.80 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.14 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.10-2.03).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 215 [85, 438] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.72 [0.81, 3.63] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [18.6, 20.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.366 [0.132, 0.986] g/100g ; Selenium = 80.2 [33.6, 212.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 70.1 [15.3, 352.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.17 [1.29, 3.87] mg/100g (wet weight);