Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Mulloidichthys: Latin, mullus = soft + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 49 m (Ref. 9710), usually - 35 m (Ref. 40849). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 33°N - 26°S, 98°W - 8°E
Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Florida, USA to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea (Ref. 9626). Eastern Atlantic: single record from Ile de Sào Tiago, Baie de Tarrafal, Cape Verde (Ref. 7313). Reported from São Tomé Island (Ref. 34088).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 17.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 44.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 104752); common length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3792)
soft rays: 6. Body pale tan with distinctive yellow stripe from eye to caudal fin; tail yellow. Less brightly colored than other species and is the only one with a single yellow stripe along side (Ref. 26938).
Found over sandy areas of lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Often in schools (Ref. 26938). Forms schools with the smallmouth grunt (Haemulon chrysargyreum), an association regarded as social protective mimicry (Ref. 52492). Juveniles are common in seagrass beds (Ref. 9710). Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 7313). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3792).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.4 - 28, mean 26.6 °C (based on 720 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00914 - 0.01200), b=3.10 (3.06 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 30 [13, 60] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.799 [0.415, 1.374] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [17.7, 21.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.215 [0.131, 0.405] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.7 [10.2, 35.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 37.4 [11.3, 148.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.851 [0.455, 1.325] mg/100g (wet weight);