Teleostei (teleosts) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Dorosomatidae
(Gizzard shads and sardinellas)
Etymology: Harengula: Old English haring, hering = mackerel, the fish Clupea harengus (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 188), usually 1 - 7 m (Ref. 96339). Tropical; 33°N - 17°S, 115°W - 76°W (Ref. 188)
Eastern Pacific: La Jolla, California to Peru (at least to Callao), including the Gulf of California (Ref. 35601). (This species seems to have two forms or subspecies: Harengula thrissina thrissina from the Gulf of California to Panama and Harengula thrissina peruana from Panama to Peru).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96339); common length : 8.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9291)
soft rays: 15 - 17. tooth plate on tongue and tooth plate behind it (basihyal and basibranchial tooth plates) broad, their width about 3 to 5 times in their combined lengths. Last dorsal fin ray not elongate (cf. Opisthonema).
A schooling species found in coastal waters. Form dense schools along shores and estuarine areas with salinities slightly lower than that of saltwater (Ref. 9291). Feed on planktonic crustaceans (Ref. 9291). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 35601). Utilized as bait (at least in Mexico and Costa Rica) (Ref. 9291).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.3 - 29.1, mean 26.4 °C (based on 242 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00433 - 0.01920), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 267 [139, 488] mg/100g; Iron = 2.19 [1.33, 3.63] mg/100g; Protein = 18.9 [17.8, 19.9] %; Omega3 = 0.434 [0.246, 0.764] g/100g; Selenium = 39.8 [19.8, 76.8] μg/100g; VitaminA = 31 [14, 71] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.87 [1.31, 2.71] mg/100g (wet weight);