Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 115829), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 5217). Subtropical; 11°C - 31°C (Ref. 47167); 40°N - 34°S, 117°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Chesapeake Bay, USA to the Antilles and southern Brazil. Eastern Pacific: Baja California to Peru (Ref. 9330).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.5, range 8 - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9330); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. reported age: 1.21 years (Ref. 47359)
Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms (Ref. 9330). Common in estuaries (Ref. 9330). Feeds on big, benthic invertebrates and small fishes (Ref. 9330). Utilized fresh (Ref. 9330).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 101737). Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Females produce numerous eggs in multiple spawnings during a prolonged spawning period (Ref. 101737).
Figueiredo, J.L. and N.A. Menezes, 2000. Manual de peixes marinhos do sudeste do Brasil. VI.Teleostei (5). Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. Brazil. 116 p. (Ref. 36453)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.1 - 28, mean 25.7 °C (based on 862 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00690 - 0.00958), b=3.10 (3.05 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tmax=1.2; k >0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .