Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Smiliogastrinae
Etymology: Enteromius: Greek, enteron = intestine + Greek, myo, mys = muscle (Ref. 45335). More on author: Peters.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.5 - 7.5; dH range: 18 - ?. Tropical; 23°C - 26°C (Ref. 2059); 10°S - 21°S
Africa: Cunene, Okavango, upper Zambezi, tributaries of the lower Zambezi, Save-Runde (Ref. 7248), Pungwe, Buzi (Ref. 94654) and Kafue (Ref. 12524) systems. Also Lake Victoria, Tanganyika, Edward and Kivu basins (Ref. 104790), Lake Malawi system (Ref. 37112), the upper Congo system (Ref. 2970, 27609, 95585) and coastal river basins in Kenya (Ref. 52331) and Tanzania (Ref. 41366).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 3 - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27628)
soft rays: 5. Last unbranched ray of the dorsal fin hardened and with posterior side toothed (Ref. 27628). Presence of a brilliant orange spot on the operculum is characteristic for this species (Ref. 27628).
Quick, active fish found in shoals (Ref. 36900). Occurs in lakes and rivers (Ref. 104790). Found in fast flowing (Ref. 4903, 13721), sluggish (Ref. 4903) and temporary (Ref. 4903) streams. Occurs in mountain streams and along vegetated fringes of large rivers (Ref. 7248) and in rocky bottom environments (Ref. 13337). Feeds on insects (Ref. 12523, 36900), debris, molluscs, plant material (Ref. 12523), seeds and algae (Ref. 97924). Migrates upstream when rain comes (Ref. 36900). Breeds in flood plains during rains (Ref. 97924).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lévêque, C. and J. Daget, 1984. Cyprinidae. p. 217-342. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 2801)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00228 - 0.01209), b=3.11 (2.90 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .