Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Ehiravinae
Etymology: Clupeonella: Latin, clupea = sardine, derived from Clupeus = shield; diminutive (Ref. 45335). More on author: Borodin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Brackish; pelagic; depth range 0 - 78 m (Ref. 188). Temperate; 44°N - 35°N, 46°E - 54°E (Ref. 188)
Former USSR and Asia: central and southern parts of the Caspian Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 593); common length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); max. published weight: 26.00 g (Ref. 593)
soft rays: 12 - 23. Body slender; head short and wide; belly rounded, with 23 to 31 scutes. Pectoral fin tips rounded. Last 2 anal fin rays enlarged; Pterotic bulla absent. No notch at the center of the upper jaw. Females slightly larger than males.
Occurs mainly in the open sea, occasionally approaching the shore and sometimes forming large schools. Rises to the surface in the spring months, but descending to as much as 78 m in late summer (apparently rising again in October-November, but descending once more in winter). Breeds intermittently from end of April to November, mainly in July, in the open sea.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00167 - 0.01091), b=3.06 (2.83 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec=9,986-53,430).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 25.5 [7.8, 91.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.353 [0.116, 1.248] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [15.7, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.528 [0.217, 1.418] g/100g ; Selenium = 1.56 [0.47, 5.86] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 19.1 [5.1, 70.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.648 [0.325, 1.708] mg/100g (wet weight);