Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 6 - 200 m (Ref. 9563). Subtropical; 10°S - 40°S
Easten Indian Ocean to Western Pacific: Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
(total): 5 - 7;
soft rays: 11 - 12. Scale modified as armor of bony scutes; pale yellow to whitish with conspicuous black outlines on scales forming a network pattern; a pale luminescent organ on the side of lower jaw.
Found in caves and under ledges of rocky, occasionally coral-reef habitats (Ref. 9710). Also in muddy substrates (Ref. 9563).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 16 - 26.2, mean 19.8 °C (based on 161 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 23.6 [9.8, 76.0] mg/100g; Iron = 0.49 [0.22, 1.11] mg/100g; Protein = 18.4 [16.9, 19.8] %; Omega3 = 0.205 [0.083, 0.565] g/100g; Selenium = 16.9 [7.6, 41.1] μg/100g; VitaminA = 68.8 [15.4, 320.7] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.839 [0.494, 1.347] mg/100g (wet weight);