Teleostei (teleosts) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cyclopsettidae
Etymology: Citharichthys: Latin, cithara = lire like instrument + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 108738), usually 0 - 18 m (Ref. 7251). Subtropical; 37°N - 15°N
Western Atlantic: southern Chesapeake Bay south along the U.S., Bahamas, throughout the Gulf of Mexico except northwestern Cuba; in the Caribbean from southern Jamaica, and along Central and South America from Mexico to the Honduran Bay Islands, and Colombia to Brazil (Santa Catarina).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Inhabits hard sand bottom from water's edge to 18 m depth, occasionally to 90 m.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Oviparous (Ref. 101737). Females produce numerous eggs in multiple spawnings during a prolonged spawning period (Ref. 101737).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.4 - 28, mean 26.5 °C (based on 426 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00430 - 0.01015), b=3.13 (3.01 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 58.1 [20.0, 145.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.723 [0.302, 1.400] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.0, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.141 [0.066, 0.293] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.8 [8.4, 43.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 28.9 [6.2, 147.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.805 [0.479, 1.268] mg/100g (wet weight);