Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 10 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical; 32°N - 32°S, 42°E - 139°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea to the Hawaiian and Tuamoto Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island, Australia; throughout Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1602); max. published weight: 8.6 kg (Ref. 5450)
soft rays: 8 - 9. Tip of lower jaw broadly rounded; a spot of black pigment often present on the underside of snout, at least in smaller individuals; tooth patches on parasphenoid and basibranchial bones more broadly oval in shape, average width/length 0.38 and 0.45, respectively; number of teeth in pharyngobranchial tooth patch usually 5-15 (Ref. 9828). Compared to A. argentea which has a yellow spot on the axil of the pectoral fin, in this species, there is none (Ref. 74924).
Inhabits mud flats of turbid inner reefs and mangroves and sandy lagoons (Ref. 9710). Benthopelagic in shallow, coastal areas (Ref. 58302). Grabs food from the substratum using its snout. Feeds on invertebrates, benthic species, mollusks and small crustaceans (Ref. 89972). Can tolerate oxygen poor water by inhaling air into a lung-like air bladder (Ref. 9710). Migrates to mass spawn at seaward mouths of channels on lunar cycle (Ref. 9710). Sold fresh in markets but seldom used for human consumption.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawning occurs in open waters. Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.6 - 29.3, mean 28.1 °C (based on 2148 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5007 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00552 - 0.03150), b=3.04 (2.83 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 10.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 14.4 [1.8, 131.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.558 [0.052, 5.738] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [16.8, 21.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.142 [0.042, 0.484] g/100g ; Selenium = 27.2 [2.3, 209.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 41.1 [4.7, 375.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.22 [0.13, 12.79] mg/100g (wet weight);