Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
() > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river. More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 2 - 125 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 30°N - 35°S, 35°E - 124°W (Ref. 54393)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa south to Durban, South Africa, east to the Hawaiian Islands, islands of French Polynesia and the Pitcairn Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, Japan south to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); max. published weight: 2.3 kg (Ref. 4887)
soft rays: 7. This species is distinguished by the following characters: pectoral rays 16 (rarely 15 or 17); gill rakers 6-7 + 22-26 = 29-33; body depth 3.25-3.8 in SL (body deeper with growth); head length (HL) 2.85-3.1 in SL; snout long, its length 1.61.8 in HL; eye small, the orbit diameter 5.3-8.95 in HL (SL 118-392 mm); barbels very long, 1.15 in HL to longer than head; longest dorsal spine 1.5-1.7 in HL; penultimate dorsal ray 1.1-1.2 in length of last dorsal ray; pectoral-fin length 1.5-1.7 in HL; pelvic-fin length 1.35-1.55 in HL. Colour of large adults yellowish gray, edges of the scales bright blue except ventrally, edges more broadly blue posteriorly; a large, hemispherical, saddle-like, yellow spot covering most of upper half of caudal peduncle; region around eye yellow with radiating short narrow blue bands; caudal fin with longitudinal blue bands; second dorsal and anal fins with narrow oblique blue bands; a second smaller color phase entirely yellow, with dorsal peduncular spot sometimes apparent by being brighter yellow than rest of body (Ref. 54393).
Found on coral (Ref. 58652), rocky, or rubble bottoms of reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs (Ref. 3921). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Juveniles form schools, adults usually solitary. Feed primarily on small fishes, crustaceans, peanut worms, shrimps, crabs, octopi, and small gastropods during the day (Ref. 3921). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 2004. Revision of the goatfish genus Parupeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (36):64 p. (Ref. 54393)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 1578 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00810 - 0.02246), b=3.10 (2.96 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .