Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Balistes: Latin, balista, -ae = crossbowman. In Greek, ballo = to throw (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gmelin.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 200 m (Ref. 7348), usually - 50 m (Ref. 7348). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 17°S, 26°W - 14°E
Eastern Atlantic from Madeira to Angola; including the Canary Islands, and Cape Verde.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683); max. published weight: 1.8 kg (Ref. ); max. published weight: 1.8 kg
Found over sand and rock bottoms of coastal waters. Feeds on crabs and bivalves (Ref. 4727).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harmelin-Vivien, M.L. and J.-C. Quéro, 1990. Balistidae. p. 1055-1060. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7348)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.9 - 28, mean 26.2 °C (based on 196 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02951 (0.01917 - 0.04543), b=2.88 (2.75 - 3.01), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 117 [44, 253] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.796 [0.462, 1.657] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [16.7, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.226 [0.103, 0.515] g/100g ; Selenium = 74.9 [39.2, 164.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.64 [3.06, 26.52] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.854 [0.560, 1.341] mg/100g (wet weight);