Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 40 m (Ref. 9772). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959); 34°N - 35°S, 20°E - 154°E
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, including Madagascar (absent in the Red Sea), eastward to southern China Sea and Queensland, Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 22.6  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5284); common length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772); max. published weight: 7.0 kg (Ref. 9987); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 3625)
Found in coastal waters (Ref. 30573). Adults feed on fishes, prawns and other invertebrates (Ref. 5213, 9772). Generally marketed fresh, may be dried or salted (Ref. 5284).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chan, W., U. Bathia and D. Carlsson, 1974. Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer and P.J.P. Whitehead (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 57) and Western Central Pacific (Fishing Area 71). Volume 3. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 2113)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.1, mean 28.3 °C (based on 798 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00788 - 0.00962), b=3.06 (3.03 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.14-0.41; tm=1; tmax=5; Fec= 53,676).
Prior r = 0.56, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.83, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .