Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cyclopsettidae
Etymology: Citharichthys: Latin, cithara = lire like instrument + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 75 m (Ref. 5217). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 36880); 41°N - 33°S
Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to the Antilles and Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122735); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 99.40 g (Ref. 122735)
Occurs in shallow muddy bottoms from the coastline to 75 m depth; also in brackish estuaries and hypersaline lagoons (Ref. 5217). Inhabit mainly coastal waters and tidelands, but abundant in waters very near the sea to a few meters elevation with wholly freshwater ichthyofauna (Ref. 36880). Feeds mainly on zooplankton and zoobenthos (Ref. 13196). Taken with beach nets (Ref. 5217).
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Oviparous (Ref. 101737). Females produce numerous eggs in multiple spawnings during a prolonged spawning period (Ref. 101737).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.5 - 28, mean 25.5 °C (based on 608 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00522 - 0.00799), b=3.11 (3.06 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.58 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.42; Fec=6,009 (batch fecundity)).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .