Teleostei (teleosts) > Perciformes/Percoidei
(Perchs) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); fonticola: From the Greek etheo=to strain and stoma=mouth; fonticola=fountain dweller (Ref. 79012).
More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Subtropical; 31°N - 29°N
North America: found only in San Marcos and Comal springs and their effluent rivers (Guadalupe River system) in southern central Texas, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 2.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Occur in vegetated springs, pools and runs of effluent rivers (Ref. 5723). Feed primarily on cladocerans, copepods, amphipods, and aquatic insects (Ref. 54633). Spawn throughout the year (Ref. 75081) at 33-day interval (Ref. 31966). Eggs are found attached to the substrate unguarded (Ref. 7043).
Eggs are found attached to the substrate unguarded (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00234 - 0.01232), b=3.14 (2.93 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=760).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).