Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Etymology: Gymnocranius: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kranion = skull (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 15 - 50 m (Ref. 2295). Tropical; 35°N - 28°S, 105°E - 170°W
Western Pacific: including southern Japan, South China Sea, Australia, Coral Sea, New Caledonia, and Tonga. Recently reported from Norfolk Island (Ref. 8881).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
Occurs over sand and rubble areas adjacent to rock and coral reefs in lagoons and outer slopes (Ref. 9775, 90102). Feeds on bottom-dwelling gastropods. Also caught with bottom longlines and handlines (Ref. 9775). Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 28.9, mean 27.6 °C (based on 408 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01069 - 0.03395), b=2.97 (2.82 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22-0.24).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 41.8 [24.3, 73.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.491 [0.295, 0.801] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.9 [18.0, 21.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.133 [0.081, 0.195] g/100g ; Selenium = 38.9 [22.8, 62.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 74.7 [22.2, 204.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.09 [0.73, 1.53] mg/100g (wet weight);