Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Labridae
Etymology: Symphodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 121253). Subtropical; 47°N - 21°N, 11°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Spain to Morocco including the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.7, range 12 - 15.2 cm
Max length : 44.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 4742)
Adults are found near rocks mainly in eel-grass beds, sometimes in salty lagoons. Often gregarious. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Nest of seaweed built and kept by male with one or more females spawning. Feed on sea urchins, ophiuroids, bivalves, shrimps and crabs (Ref. 4742). Rate of growth is slow (Ref. 4742). Undergoes sex reversal (Ref. 4742).
Oviparous (Ref. 205). One male makes a nest of seaweed for one or more females to spawn in (Ref. 4742). Undergoes sex reversal (Ref. 4742).
Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras, 1986. Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4742)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 16.3 - 21.4, mean 18.9 °C (based on 116 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00780 - 0.01117), b=3.03 (2.99 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.25-0.89(?); tm=2-3; tmax=15).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 37.7 [16.3, 76.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.09 [0.56, 2.31] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [15.3, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.386 [0.175, 0.883] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.1 [7.4, 38.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 58.2 [13.3, 272.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.4 [0.8, 2.9] mg/100g (wet weight);