Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 50 m (Ref. 5578). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Oman to Indonesia; north to Taiwan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 64 - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9840)
Likely confined to the inner continental shelf (Ref. 9840), over sandy and mud bottoms (Ref. 30573). Recorded from coastal waters and river mouths (Ref. 45255). Feeds on bottom crustaceans including shrimp, crabs and small lobsters (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Important food fish, the skin and flesh are dried or used to produce leather for purses and bags (Ref. 9840). Caught in very large quantities in the demersal tangle net, bottom trawl and trammel net fisheries. Utilized for its meat, skin (high value) and cartilage (Ref. 58048). It is parasitised on the dorsal skin surface by the monogeneans Dendromonocotyle citrosa, D. colorni, D. ukuthena (Ref. 124058) and D. lotteri (Ref. 124051).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Bears 2 young in summer (Ref. 5578). Gives birth to litters of 1-4 pups; born at 18-21 cm WD (Ref.58048).
Last, P.R., W.T. White, M.R. de Carvalho, B. Séret, M.F.W. Stehmann and G.J.P. Naylor, 2016. Rays of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Comstock Publishing Associates. i-ix + 1-790. (Ref. 114953)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.4 °C (based on 1116 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00606 - 0.04338), b=3.00 (2.77 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=2).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 12.9 [1.9, 252.0] mg/100g; Iron = 0.63 [0.06, 7.40] mg/100g; Protein = 20.9 [18.3, 23.5] %; Omega3 = 0.122 [0.038, 0.345] g/100g; Selenium = 50.3 [10.3, 257.1] μg/100g; VitaminA = 4.98 [0.44, 49.87] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.725 [0.044, 8.176] mg/100g (wet weight);