Garra napata Moritz, Straube & Neumann, 2019

Family:  Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps), subfamily: Labeoninae
Max. size:  7.03 cm SL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  benthopelagic; freshwater
Distribution:  Africa: Main Nile River in Sudan and Egypt (Ref. 122047).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9-10; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 7-8; Vertebrae: 34-36. Diagnosis: Garra napata differs from all other African Garra species, except G. jamila and G. ethelwynnae, in a scaleless area on the dorsal body area clearly exceeding beyond dorsal fin origin and thus in an incomplete count of only 1 to 2.5 scale rows between the origin of the dorsal fin and lateral line series vs. 3 or more (Ref. 122047). It is distinguished from G. ethelwynnae from the Damas River basin in Eritrea by: its intermediate, type B, developed disc and only minute free posterior flap vs. prominent disc of type C with well-developed posterior flap; and an asquamate postpelvic area vs. squamate (Ref. 122047). It is distinguished from G. jamila of the Atbara by: its intermediate type B developed disc with a very small free posterior flap vs. prominent disc type C with well-developed posterior flap; a smoother upper lip vs. crenate; and, in live specimens, an uncoloured anal fin vs. red anal fin; dark humeral spot large and nearly twice as big as red postopercular spot vs. equally sized small humeral and postopercular spots; fixed specimens usually display a pronounced lateral band and pale back vs. dark back strongly and contrasting light belly (Ref. 122047). It is distinguished from Garra vinciguerrae and G. sannarensis by: its narrow disc, width much smaller than mouth vs. as large as mouth width; virtually absent lateroposterior flap of the disc vs. clearly developed; and a relatively broad head, i.e. cheeks visible when viewed from dorsal vs. cheeks not visible; from G. vinciguerrae by its prominent dark colour markings in the centre of the dorsal-fin membrane near its base vs. no such pattern; from G. sp. "White Nile" by its visible cheeks when viewed from dorsal vs. not visible from above, and by its short barbels barely reaching margin of lower-lip pad vs. almost reaching each other (Ref. 122047). Description: A small Garra species; head and anterior body region dorsoventrally flattened; posterior half of body laterally compressed; body dorsoventrally compressed, thinner than most other Garra species in the Main Nile; head relatively flat and broad, cheeks visible when viewed from dorsal (Ref. 122047). Disc intermediate, type B, with very small lateroposterior flap without papillae; central callus of disc smaller than mouth and usually longer than wide; rostral cap poorly developed, its margin being only weakly fringed if fringed at all; two well-developed pairs of maxillary barbels (Ref. 122047). Dorsal fin originates midway on body, its distal margin slightly convex or straight with one large and one smaller simple ray, often supported by an additional minute small ray deeply embedded in the anterior dorsal fin tissue and visible only in X-ray images; unbranched rays followed by 7 branched; pectoral fins inserting ventrally low on body; pelvic fins reaching beyond vent, but ending in front of base of anal fin; anal fin with one large and one small simple ray, often supported by additional minute rays deeply embedded into the anterior fin tissue and visible only in X-ray images; 5 branched rays, distal fin membrane straight; caudal fin emarginated, upper and lower lobe rounded (Ref. 122047). Body covered with large scales, except for chest, belly and postpelvic area; predorsal area naked, asquamate area expands laterally onto body flanks consequently reducing the number of scale rows between the dorsal fin origin and lateral line series to 2.5 (Ref. 122047). Colouration: Head and flanks in life deeply olive-green, body sides gradually getting darker towards mid-dorsal line, lower third of flanks and belly whitish; flank scales with dark anterior centres and light distal part resulting in reticulate pattern on flanks, towards tail additional, usually 7 irregular, vertically merged dark green to blackish blotches; caudal peduncle with prominent and broad, slightly rectangular marking, contrasting the flank colouration; iris orange; prominent red spot at posterior dorsal corner of opercle merges with dark-green humeral spot, nearly twice as large as blotch on the first lateral line series scale; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins hyaline to slightly orange with few scattered melanophores along fin rays; caudal fin membrane hyaline, rays bordered by dark grey melanophores in proximal two-thirds, often fused to a dark spot at the base of the inner-most caudal rays; distal third of caudal fin membrane slightly orange, border of ventral and dorsal lobes orange; dorsal-fin base with four prominent dark spots at branched rays 3 to 6; middle of fin membrane with horizontal dark band with very dark to black zone in anterior half; distal third of dorsal fin membrane orange or slightly orange (Ref. 122047). Preserved specimens dark brown on flanks and dorsum; lower third of flanks and ventral side pale whitish; posterior half of flanks darker; faint dark band along lateral line occasionally visible in specimens, the irregular colour pattern on tail faintly recognisable; first scale of lateral line series with dark blotch; dark bar at end of caudal peduncle and innermost caudal rays with dark spots at insertion; pectoral, pelvic and anal fin whitish-hyaline with single melanophore along rays, dark dorsal fin markings also visible in preserved specimens (Ref. 122047).
Biology:  Rheophilic and collected from swift water in strong current, likely prefers habitats with high velocity; occurs syntopically with other rheophilic species like Garra vinciguerrae, Chiloglanis niloticus, Andersonia leptura and Labeo forskalii (Ref. 122047).
IUCN Red List Status: Not Evaluated (N.E.) Ref. (130435)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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