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Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes, 1830)

Netfin grouper
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Epinephelus miliaris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Epinephelus miliaris
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 深度上下限 1 - 200 m (Ref. 9710).   熱帶; 29°N - 24°S, 39°E - 175°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: insular species ranging from East Africa (excluding the Red Sea and Persian Gulf) to the Gilbert Islands and Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands.
印度-西太平洋: 範圍從東非 (除了紅海與波斯灣) 到吉柏特島與美屬薩摩亞的島嶼魚種, 北至琉球群島。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 53.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 90102)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 16-17; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. Have a large spots on the soft-rayed portions of the fins and a fine pattern of small close-set spots on the body and spinous portions of the fins (Ref. 37816); further characterized by having ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anteriorly above lateral line, thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.2 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.7-2.1 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL; convex interorbital, slightly concave dorsal head profile at eyes; subangular preopercle, shallow notch just above the angle and the serrae at the angle enlarged in juveniles; straight upper edge of operculum; diameter of posterior nostrils about twice that of anterior nostril; maxilla reaches vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-4 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; pyloric caeca 30 (Ref. 89707).
有一个在鳍的有软鳍的部分上的大斑点与细图案小的在身体与鳍的刺状部分上靠拢在一起斑点.(参考文献 37816)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Found in a variety of habitats. Solitary (Ref 90102). Juveniles (8-21 cm SL) have been taken from mud bottoms, seagrass beds, mangrove swamps, and from coral reefs in depths of 1 to 16 m; adults in coral reefs at depths of 18 to 180 m (Ref. 89707). Stomach contents reported to include juvenile clappid crab, a stomatopod, and a gastropod (Ref. 6448).

发现于多种栖息地了。 稚鱼 (8-21 公分 SL) 曾经取自泥底,海草床,红树林沼泽, 与从珊瑚礁在深度 1 到 16 公尺中; 成鱼在珊瑚礁深度 18 到 180 公尺。 胃内含物报告包括幼年的 clappid 螃蟹,一个口足目甲壳类 , 与一个腹足动物。 (参考文献 6448)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

印度-西太平洋: 範圍從東非 (除了紅海與波斯灣) 到吉柏特島與美屬薩摩亞的島嶼魚種, 北至琉球群島。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 03 February 2018

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 低经济
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.8 - 28.2, mean 26.2 (based on 240 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.62 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.