Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes, 1830)
Netfin grouper
photo by Trevor, M.

Family:  Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets), subfamily: Epinephelinae
Max. size:  53 cm TL (male/unsexed)
Environment:  reef-associated; depth range 1 - 200 m
Distribution:  Indo-West Pacific: insular species ranging from East Africa (excluding the Red Sea and Persian Gulf) to the Gilbert Islands and Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 11-11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-17; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 8-8. Have a large spots on the soft-rayed portions of the fins and a fine pattern of small close-set spots on the body and spinous portions of the fins (Ref. 37816); further characterized by having ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anteriorly above lateral line, thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.2 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.7-2.1 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL; convex interorbital, slightly concave dorsal head profile at eyes; subangular preopercle, shallow notch just above the angle and the serrae at the angle enlarged in juveniles; straight upper edge of operculum; diameter of posterior nostrils about twice that of anterior nostril; maxilla reaches vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-4 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; pyloric caeca 30 (Ref. 89707).
Biology:  Found in a variety of habitats. Solitary (Ref 90102). Juveniles (8-21 cm SL) have been taken from mud bottoms, seagrass beds, mangrove swamps, and from coral reefs in depths of 1 to 16 m; adults in coral reefs at depths of 18 to 180 m (Ref. 89707). Stomach contents reported to include juvenile clappid crab, a stomatopod, and a gastropod (Ref. 6448).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 03 February 2018 Ref. (120744)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   

Entered by: Capuli, Estelita Emily - 12.02.93
Modified by: Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei - 16.10.13
Checked by: Garilao, Cristina V. - 16.01.97

Source and more info: www.fishbase.org. For personal, classroom, and other internal use only. Not for publication.

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