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Leuresthes tenuis (Ayres, 1860)

California grunion
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Leuresthes tenuis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Leuresthes tenuis (California grunion)
Leuresthes tenuis
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Atheriniformes (Silversides) > Atherinopsidae (Neotropical silversides) > Atherinopsinae
Etymology: Leuresthes: Greek, leyros, -a, -on = smooth + Greek, esthes = suit, something used to wrap (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Ayres.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 深度上下限 0 - 18 m (Ref. 2850).   亞熱帶的; 37°N - 24°N, 123°W - 111°W

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Monterey Bay, USA to Baja California Sur, Mexico.
東太平洋: 蒙德勒海灣, 美國到墨西哥南下加利福尼亞。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 11.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 2850); 最大年龄: 8 年 (Ref. 1744)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 4 - 8; 背的软条 (总数): 8-10; 臀棘 1; 臀鳍软条: 20 - 24; 脊椎骨: 47 - 50. Branchiostegal rays: 6 (Ref. 36497).
鳃条骨: 6.(参考文献 36497)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults inhabit inshore waters, usually at or near surface along open coast and in bays (Ref. 36497). Oviparous, with planktonic primarily neustonic larvae (Ref. 36497). Eggs are deposited in the sand at night by the female parent (Ref. 58332) just below the high spring tide line (Ref. 36497). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 57178.

成鱼栖息于近岸水域, 通常在或者近表面的沿着开放的海岸与在海湾中.(参考文献 36497) 卵生的, 与浮游生物主要漂浮性的仔鱼.(参考文献 36497) 卵在高春天潮线正下方被沈积在沙子在晚上。 (参考文献 36497)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Demersal spawners. Spawn at night on sand beaches at high tides in the spring and summer. Eggs are buried in moist sand by the female parent (Ref. 58332) and hatch about 15 days later during the next series of high tides (Ref. 2850). Females spawn 4 to 8 times during a season (Ref. 4563).東太平洋: 蒙德勒海灣, 美國到墨西哥南下加利福尼亞。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  不评价 

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 低经济
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 15 - 23.2, mean 21 (based on 103 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00265 - 0.01309), b=3.03 (2.83 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.9   ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tmax=4; k >0.30; tm=1.5).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.